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Table 3 Multivariable analysis in matched and unmatched cohort

From: Sex-specific prevalence and outcomes of frailty in critically ill patients

Variable ICU mortality
HR [95% CI]
Hospital mortality
HR [95% CI]
Vasoactive support
OR [95% CI]
Invasive mechanical ventilation
OR [95% CI]
Renal replacement therapy
OR [95% CI]
Non-invasive mechanical ventilation
OR [95% CI]
Any ventilation (invasive or non-invasive)
OR [95% CI]
Female sex
 Unmatched 1.03 [0.88–1.20] 1.01 [0.89–1.16] 0.88 [0.81–0.97]* 0.76 [0.70–0.84]* 0.92 [0.74–1.13] 1.08 [0.94–1.25] 0.77 [0.70–0.84]*
 Matched 1.02 [0.87–1.19] 0.98 [0.85–1.12] 0.93 [0.86–1.02] 0.78 [0.71–0.86]* 0.91 [0.74–1.11] 0.99 [0.85–1.14] 0.76 [0.70–0.84]*
Frailty (CFS ≥ 5)
 Unmatched 1.04 [0.89–1.22] 1.31 [1.15–1.48]* 0.73 [0.65–0.82]* 0.54 [0.48–0.61]* 0.98 [0.78–1.23] 1.92 [1.65–2.22]* 0.71 [0.63–0.81]*
 Matched 1.25 [1.05–1.49]* 1.61 [1.41–1.84]* 1.31 [1.17–1.47]* 0.78 [0.69–0.88]* 1.52 [1.21–1.92]* 2.78 [2.37–3.25]* 1.10 [0.96–1.25]
Sex-frailty interaction
 Unmatched 0.98 [0.77–1.25] 0.97 [0.80–1.17] 1.01 [0.85–1.20] 1.06 [0.90–1.26] 0.95 [0.67–1.33] 1.20 [0.97–1.48] 1.29 [1.07–1.55]*
 Matched 1.00 [0.78–1.28] 0.97 [0.80–1.18] 0.95 [0.81–1.11] 1.06 [0.90–1.25] 0.99 [0.71–1.37] 1.17 [0.94–1.45] 1.24 [1.04–1.48]*
  1. *p < 0.05
  2. In the unmatched cohort, all results are adjusted for frailty, age, APACHE II score, days between hospital and ICU admission, ICU diagnostic category, and an interaction term for sex and frailty status. In matched analysis the models included sex, frailty, and the interaction term between sex and frailty