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Table 1 Comparison of patient characteristics by sex

From: Sex-specific prevalence and outcomes of frailty in critically ill patients

  Unmatched Matched
  Male
(N = 9254)
Female
(N = 5984)
p value Standardized difference Male
(N = 5908)
Female
(N = 5908)
Standardized difference
Patient characteristics
Age (mean [SD]), years 58.2 [16.4] 57.3 [17.0] 0.001 0.055 57.3 [16.7] 57.3 [17.0] 0.001*
ICU type    < 0.001     
 Academic 4971 (54%) 2551 (43%)   0.227 2941 (50%) 2522 (43%) 0.143
 Tertiary 1449 (16%) 1047 (18%)   0.053 999 (17%) 1042 (18%) 0.020
 Community 1540 (17%) 1246 (21%)   0.107 1068 (18%) 1226 (21%) 0.069
 Regional 1294 (14%) 1140 (19%)   0.137 900 (15%) 1118 (19%) 0.098
Admission category, (n;%)    < 0.001     
 Medical/non-operative 5277 (57%) 3907 (65%)   0.172 3676 (62%) 3850 (65%) 0.061
 Elective surgical 2353 (25%) 1094 (18%)   0.176 1222 (21%) 1084 (18%) 0.057
 Emergency surgical 1576 (17%) 948 (16%)   0.004 967 (16%) 943 (16%) 0.011
 No admission category assigned 48 (0.5%) 35 (0.5%)   0.008 43 (0.7%) 31 (0.5%) 0.029
Admission classification, (n;%)    < 0.001     
 Medical 4154 (45%) 3352 (56%)   0.228 2902 (49%) 3308 (56%) 0.138
 Neurology 690 (7%) 498 (5%)   0.031 512 (9%) 491 (8%) 0.013
 Surgical 3796 (41%) 1954 (33%)   0.178 2091 (35%) 1935 (33%) 0.039
 Trauma 556 (6%) 144 (2%)   0.180 354 (6%) 142 (2%) 0.180
No admission classification assigned 58 (0.6%) 36 (0.6%)   0.004 49 (0.8%) 32 (0.5%) 0.029
Diagnostic category, (n;%)    < 0.001     
 Cardiovascular 3216 (35%) 1552 (26%)   0.194 1508 (26%) 1532 (26%) 0.009*
 Respiratory 1956 (21%) 1531 (26%)   0.106 1495 (25%) 1514 (26%) 0.008*
 Gastrointestinal/hepatic 1040 (11%) 717 (12%)   0.022 691 (12%) 706 (12%) 0.008*
 Neurologic 1416 (15%) 1120 (19%)   0.091 1104 (19%) 1105 (19%) 0*
 Other diagnosis 1504 (16%) 947 (16%)   0.010 993 (17%) 939 (16%) 0.025*
 No diagnostic category assigned 122 (1%) 117 (2%)   0.051 117 (2%) 112 (2%) 0.007*
APACHE II score, (mean [SD]) 18.4 [8.1] 19.0 [8.1] < 0.001 0.074 19.0 [8.3] 19.0 [8.1] 0*
Admission SOFA score, (mean [SD]) 6.5 [3.7] 6.1 [3.8] < 0.001 0.114 6.5 [3.8] 6.1 [3.8] 0.116
Pre-ICU hospitalization duration (mean [SD]), days 4.1 [15.9] 3.7 [15.1] < 0.001 0.023 3.7 [13.7] 3.6 [12.7] 0.010*
Frailty 2282 (25%) 1917 (32%) < 0.001 0.164 1575 (27%) 1890 (32%) 0.117
CFS score (median [IQR]) 3 [2–4] 4 [2–5] < 0.001 0.147 3 [2–5] 4 [2–5] 0.122
APACHE chronic health condition variables
 Diabetes mellitus 2168 (23%) 1331 (22%) 0.09 0.029 1339 (23%) 1314 (22%) 0.010
 Acute renal failure on admission 1802 (19%) 1210 (20%) 0.3 0.020 1244 (21%) 1199 (20%) 0.019
 Respiratory insufficiency 950 (10%) 859 (14%) < 0.001 0.125 827 (14%) 849 (14%) 0.011*
 Congestive heart failure 746 (8%) 430 (7%) 0.05 0.036 468 (8%) 421 (7%) 0.030
 Immunosuppression 660 (7%) 504 (8%) 0.003 0.049 459 (8%) 500 (8%) 0.026
 Cirrhosis 389 (4%) 261 (4%) 0.6 0.008 264 (4%) 258 (4%) 0.005
 Metastatic carcinoma 282 (3%) 186 (3%) 0.8 0 181 (3%) 181 (3%) 0
 Hepatic failure 205 (2%) 166 (3%) 0.03 0.035 146 (2%) 163 (3%) 0.018
 Lymphoma 81 (0.9%) 38 (0.6%) 0.1 0.027 51 (0.9%) 38 (0.6%) 0.025
 Leukemia 77 (0.8%) 36 (0.6%) 0.1 0.025 45 (0.8%) 36 (0.6%) 0.018
 Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome 37 (0.4%) 16 (0.3%) 0.2 0.023 25 (0.4%) 16 (0.3%) 0.026
  1. *The variables in the propensity score. All standardized differences are absolute values
  2. Abbreviations: SD standard deviation, ICU intensive care unit, APACHE II Acute Physiology And Chronic Health Evaluation II; SOFA The sequential organ failure assessment score, CFS clinical frailty scale, IQR interquartile range