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Table 2 Summay table of findings

From: Prolonged versus intermittent β-lactam antibiotics intravenous infusion strategy in sepsis or septic shock patients: a systematic review with meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis of randomized trials

Outcomes Anticipated absolute effects (95%CI) Relative effect (95%CI) Number of participants (studies) Certainty of the evidence (GRADE)
Risk with intermittent infusion Risk with prolonged infusion
Hospital mortality 267 per 1000 185 per 1000 (126 to 273) RR 0.69 (0.47 to 1.02) 825 (9 RCTs) Low
Attainment of target plasma concentration 494 per 1000 198 per 1000 (104 to 371) RR 0.40 (0.21 to 0.75) 177 (2 RCTs) Moderate
Clinical cure 472 per 1000 396 per 1000 (344 to 458) RR 0.84 (0.73 to 0.97) 886 (9 RCTs) Low
Adverse event 123 per 1000 124 per 1000 (117 to 131) RR 1.01 (0.95 to 1.06) 691 (3 RCTs) Moderate
Occurrence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria 39 per 1000 21 per 1000 (4 to 111) RR 0.53 (0.10 to 2.83) 198 (1 RCT) Low
  1. GRADE Working Group grades of evidence: High certainty—we are very confident that the true effect lies close to that of the estimate of the effect. Moderate certainty—we are moderately confident in the effect estimate: the true effect is likely to be close to the estimate of the effect, but there is a possibility that it is substantially different. Low certainty: our confidence in the effect estimate is limited: the true effect may be substantially different from the estimate of the effect. Very low certainty—we have very little confidence in the effect estimate: the true effect is likely to be substantially different from the estimate of the effect
  2. CI confidence interval; GRADE Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation; RR risk ratio; RCT randomized controlled trial