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Table 2 Levels of the biomarkers of endothelial damage and cytokines in the three groups evaluated in this investigation

From: Endothelial glycocalyx shedding in the acute respiratory distress syndrome after flu syndrome

Biomarkers, median (IQR) Flu syndrome
With ARDS
N = 30
Without ARDS
N = 36
Control
N = 35
p value
Hyaluronan (ng/ml) 31 (12–56) 5 (3–10) 5 (2–8) < 0.0001*
Thrombomodulin (pg/ml) 1411 (878–2237) 1390 (21–1746) 219 (21–601) < 0.0001‡
Syndecan-1 (ng/ml) 28 (24–57) 24 (24–25) 24 (17–41) 0.011§
TNF-α (pg/ml) 15 (15–51) 15 (15–43) 23 (5–110) 0.850
IL-6 (pg/ml) 39 (12–129) 33 (6–83) 16 (6–41) 0.081
IL-1β (pg/ml) 4 (0.4–32) 0.4 (0.4–45) 4 (0.4–10) 0.788
  Positive RT-PCR or IgM for influenza A
With ARDS
N = 17
Without ARDS
N = 13
Control
N = 35
 
Hyaluronan (ng/ml) 34 (16–62) 8 (4–15) 5 (2–8) 0.001**
Thrombomodulin (pg/ml) 1374 (923–1980) 1339 (575–1888) 219 (21–601) < 0.0001‡‡
Syndecan-1 (ng/ml) 24 (24–41) 24 (19–70) 24 (17–41) 0.427
TNF-α (pg/ml) 15(15–30) 15 (12–26) 23 (5–109) 0.745
IL-6 (pg/ml) 37 (1283) 52 (6–98) 16(6–41) 0.255
IL-1β (pg/ml) 4 (0.4–33) 4 (0.4–47) 4(0.4–10) 0.957
  1. ARDS acute respiratory distress syndrome, IQR interquartile range
  2. *with ARDS vs. without ARDS, p = 0.0002; with ARDS vs. control, p < 0.0001, without ARDS vs. control, p > 0.99
  3. ‡with ARDS vs. without ARDS, p = 0.57; with ARDS vs. control, p < 0.0001; without ARDS vs. control, p = 0.0001
  4. §with ARDS vs. without ARDS, p = 0.009, with ARDS vs. control, p = 0.1536, without ARDS vs. control, p = 0.888
  5. ** with ARDS vs. without ARDS, p = 0.015; with ARDS vs. control, p = 0.006, without ARDS vs. control, p = 0.91
  6. ‡‡with ARDS vs. without ARDS, p = 0.99; with ARDS vs. control, p < 0.0001; without ARDS vs. control, p = 0.0008