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Table 1 Patient characteristics and interventions among unmatched and propensity score-matched patients with and without steroid therapy

From: Early steroid pulse therapy among children with influenza virus-associated encephalopathy

  Unmatched patients Propensity score-matched patients
  All
N = 692
With steroid pulse therapy
N = 329
Without steroid pulse therapy
N = 363
Absolute standardized difference (%) With steroid pulse therapy
N = 168
Without steroid pulse therapy
N = 168
Absolute standardized difference (%)
Age category
 < 1 year, n (%) 27 (3.9) 15 (4.6) 12 (3.3) 6.5 3 (1.8) 4 (2.4) 4.2
 1–5 years, n (%) 376 (54.3) 189 (57.4) 187 (51.5) 11.9 90 (53.6) 85 (50.6) 6.0
 6–11 years, n (%) 223 (32.2) 100 (30.4) 123 (33.9) 7.5 57 (33.9) 59 (35.1) 2.5
 12–18 years, n (%) 66 (9.5) 25 (7.6) 41 (11.3) 12.7 18 (10.7) 20 (11.9) 3.8
Male, n (%) 386 (55.8) 174 (52.9) 212 (58.4) 11.1 100 (59.5) 102 (60.7) 2.4
Congenital anomaly, n (%) 8 (1.2) 4 (1.2) 4 (1.1) 1.1 1 (0.6) 2 (1.2) 6.3
Epilepsya, n (%) 115 (16.6) 67 (20.4) 48 (13.2) 19.2 22 (13.1) 29 (17.3) 11.6
JCS category at admission
 JCS 0, n (%) 310 (44.8) 110 (33.4) 200 (55.1) 44.7 73 (43.5) 65 (38.7) 9.7
 JCS 1–3, n (%) 164 (23.7) 87 (26.4) 77 (21.2) 12.3 40 (23.8) 46 (27.4) 8.2
 JCS 10–30, n (%) 91 (13.2) 45 (13.7) 46 (12.7) 30.0 26 (15.5) 28 (16.7) 3.2
 JCS 100–300, n (%) 127 (18.4) 87 (26.4) 40 (11.0) 40.3 29 (17.3) 29 (17.3) 0.0
Anti-influenza agents within 2 days, n (%) 493 (71.2) 277 (84.2) 216 (59.5) 57.0 134 (79.8) 132 (78.6) 2.9
Intravenous antiepileptic drugs within 2 days, n (%) 384 (55.5) 250 (76.0) 134 (36.9) 85.6 102 (60.7) 109 (64.9) 8.6
Acetaminophen within 2 days, n (%) 298 (43.1) 152 (46.2) 146 (40.2) 12.1 78 (46.4) 82 (48.8) 4.8
Mechanical ventilation within 2 days, n (%) 75 (10.8) 60 (18.2) 15 (4.1) 45.8 8 (4.8) 12 (7.1) 10.0
Vasoactive agents within 2 days, n (%) 24 (3.5) 19 (5.8) 5 (1.4) 23.8 3 (1.8) 5 (3.0) 7.8
CT or MRI within 2 days, n (%) 549 (79.3) 310 (94.2) 239 (65.8) 75.8 156 (92.9) 160 (95.2) 10.0
Cerebrospinal fluid examination within 2 days, n (%) 313 (45.2) 198 (60.2) 115 (31.7) 59.6 83 (49.4) 85 (50.6) 2.4
Admission to ICU within 2 days, n (%) 76 (11.0) 52 (15.8) 24 (6.6) 29.4 13 (7.7) 17 (10.1) 8.3
Immunoglobulin within 2 days, n (%) 103 (14.9) 96 (29.2) 7 (1.9) 81.0 6 (3.6) 7 (4.2) 3.1
  1. JCS Japan Coma Scale, CT Computerized tomography, MRI Magnetic resonance imaging, ICU Intensive care unit
  2. aEpilepsy patients did not include those diagnosed after the incidence of influenza virus-associated encephalopathy