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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of eligible studies

From: Effects of hypertonic saline versus mannitol in patients with traumatic brain injury in prehospital, emergency department, and intensive care unit settings: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Study Type of study Country Total number of patients (n) Intervention Neurological state on admission Age, years (mean ± SD) Gender, male/female Inclusion criteria
Vialet et al. [13] RCT France 20 Group 1 (n = 10), 7.5% HS, 2 ml/kg; group 2 (n = 10), 20% mannitol, 2 ml/kg Group 1, 4.1 ± 1.6; group 2, 5.4 ± 2.8 (GOS mean ± SD) Group 1, 35.0 ± 18; group 2, 30.8 ± 19 Group 1, 5/5; group 2, 4/6 TBI patients with informed consent from the closest relative who have persistent coma requiring ICP monitoring and infusion of an osmotic agent to correct refractory episodes of ICP that are resistant to standard modes of therapy
Francony et al. [14] RCT France 20 Group 1 (n = 10), 7.45% HS, 100 ml; group 2 (n = 10), 20% mannitol, 231 ml Group 1, 7 ± 2; group 2, 8 ± 2 (GCS mean ± SD) Group 1, 37.0 ± 16; group 2, 43.0 ± 11 Group 1, 9/1; group 2, 7/1 Aged ≥18 years and had sustained elevated ICP of >20 mmHg for > 10 mins, not related to procedural pain.
Cottenceau et al. [15] RCT France, Israel 56 Group 1 (n = 22), 7.5% HS, 2 ml/kg; group 2 (n = 25), 20% mannitol, 4 ml/kg Group 1, 5 (4–7); group 2, 7 (5–8) (GCS median with lower and upper) Group 1, 42.7 ± 19.9; group 2, 36.1 ± 16.8 Not available TBI severe enough to justify ICP monitoring and mechanical ventilation under sedation, with a GCS of ≤ 8 at the time of admission
Jagannatha et al. [16] RCT India 38 Group 1 (n = 18), 3% HS, 2.5 ml/kg; group 2 (n = 20), 20% mannitol, 2.5 ml/kg Group 1, 4 (4–5); group 2, 5 (4–6) (GCS median with lower and upper) Group 1, 27.0 ± 8; group 2, 31.0 ± 13 Group 1, 16/2; group 2, 18/2 Patients with severe TBI aged between 15 and 70 years
  1. RCT randomized control trial, HS hypertonic saline, GOS Glasgow outcome scale, GCS Glasgow coma scale, SD standard deviation, ICP intracranial pressure, TBI traumatic brain injury, Group 1 HS group, Group 2 mannitol group