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Table 1 Population demographics and statistical analysis in the septic and non-septic groups

From: The use of automated pupillometry to assess cerebral autoregulation: a retrospective study

  All (n = 92) Septic (n = 52) Non-septic (n = 40) p value
Age, years 62 [58–67] 62 [54–70] 62 [60–65] 0.10
Male sex, % 68.5 71.2 65 0.53
APACHE II score 19 [11–28] 22 [16–28] 7 [1–13] < 0.001
ICU LOS, days 5 [3–8] 6 [3–8] 5 [2–7] 0.47
Alive at ICU discharge, % 91.2 86.5 97.4 0.07
Comorbidities
 CKD, % 19.6 28.8 7.5 0.01
 Arteriopathy, % 30.4 38.5 20 0.06
 CHF, % 16.3 7.7 27.5 0.01
 COPD, % 15.2 15.4 15 0.96
 Liver disease, % 30.4 32.7 27.5 0.59
 Diabetes mellitus, % 37 32.7 42.5 0.33
 Chronic anemia, % 14.1 19.2 7.5 0.11
 Smoking, % 16.3 17.3 15 0.77
 Alcohol consumer, % 22.8 26.9 17.5 0.29
 Obesity, % 18.5 26.9 7.5 0.02
 Encephalopathy, % 28.3 36.5 17.5 0.04
At time of assessment
 Sedation, % 20.7 21.2 20 0.89
 Analgesia, % 47.8 46.2 50 0.71
 NMBA, % 3.3 5.8 0 0.12
 Mechanical ventilation, % 34.8 36.5 32.5 0.69
 Antihypertensives, % 32.6 21.2 47.5 0.01
 Norepinephrine, μg/min 24.4 [14.1–34.6] 29.1 [0.1–58.1] 2.6 [−0.4–5.6] < 0.001
 Dobutamine, % 10.9 11.5 10 0.81
 MAP, mmHg 77 [71–84] 77 [71–83] 80 [70–89] 0.83
 Heart rate, beats/min 95 [82–109] 96 [82–110] 93 [75–111] 0.03
 Temperature, °C 37 [36.6–37.6] 37.1 [36.7–37.4] 37.4 [36.9–37.9] 0.78
 Hemoglobin, g/dL 9.9 [8.3–11.4] 9.8 [8–11.5] 10.5 [9.3–11.8] 1.00
 Hematocrit, % 29.3 [24.2–34.5] 29 [23.5–34.5] 31 [27.2–34.9] 0.86
 C-reactive protein, mg/L 215 [116–314] 234 [139–329] 127 [2–252] < 0.001
 Sodium, mmol/L 136.6 [134.7–138.5] 136.8 [134.3–139.3] 135.6 [134.6–136.6] 0.34
 PEEP, cmH2O 5 [1–9] 5 [0.17–10] 2 [−0.5–5] 0.21
 FiO2, % 39 [29–49] 39 [29–49] 35 [26–45] 0.72
 pH 7.40 [7.35–7.46] 7.40 [7.34–7.45] 7.42 [7.35–7.49] 0.77
 PaCO2, mmHg 37 [32–42] 37 [32–43] 37 [31–43] 0.02
 PaO2, mmHg 89 [72–106] 87 [68–105] 98 [84–113] 0.28
 P/F 264 [177–351] 253 [164–342] 315 [185–444] 0.72
 Lactates 1.84 [1.19–2.49] 1.82 [1.22–2.42] 1.94 [1.19–2.69] 0.19
 Mxa 0.33 [0.09–0.57] 0.33 [0.08–0.58] 0.31 [0.04–0.59] 0.77
 Altered CAR, % 55.4 53.8 57.5 0.73
 NPi 4.33 [3.98–4.69] 4.36 [3.98–4.73] 4.22 [3.75–4.7] 0.59
 Pupil size, mm 3.67 [2.69–4.65] 3.56 [2.68–4.45] 3.81 [2.77–4.85] 0.32
 Pupil constriction, % 32.52 [25.57–39.47] 32.20 [25.25–39.15] 32.93 [26.48–39.38] 0.84
 Constriction velocity, mm/s 3.61 [3.07–4.15] 2.01 [1.47–2.55] 5.69 [5.14–6.25] 0.91
 Latency, ms 0.24 [0.21–0.26] 0.24 [0.21–0.26] 0.24 [0.22–0.27] 0.22
Primary site of infection, %
 Abdominal 28.3 48.1 2.5 < 0.001
 Respiratory 19.6 21.2 17.5 0.45
 Urinary tract 6.5 11.5 0 0.03
 Soft tissue 6.5 9.6 2.5 0.17
 Blood/CVC 1.1 1.9 0 0.38
 Unknown 2.2 3.8 0 0.21
Pathogen, %
 Bacterial 45.7 65.4 20 < 0.001
 GNB 33.7 50 12.5 < 0.001
 GPC 13 17.3 7.5 0.07
 Fungus 5.4 5.8 5 0.87
 Virus 4.3 3.8 5 0.79
 Unknown bug 14.1 23.1 2.5 0.03
 Other bug 1.1 1.9 0 0.38
  1. APACHE II Acute Physiology, Age, Chronic Health Evaluation II, ICU LOS ICU length of stay, CKD chronic kidney disease, CHF chronic heart failure, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, NMBA neuro-muscular blocking agents, PEEP positive end expiratory pressure, PaO2 arterial oxygen pressure, PaCO2 arterial carbon dioxide pressure, P/F PaO2 divided by FiO2, Mxa mean flow index, CAR cerebral autoregulation, NPi Neurological Pupil Index, CVC central venous catheter, GNB gram-negative bacillus, GPC gram-positive cocci