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Table 1 Baseline patient characteristics in unmatched and propensity-matched groups

From: Histamine-2 receptor antagonists versus proton pump inhibitors for septic shock after lower gastrointestinal tract perforation: a retrospective cohort study using a national inpatient database

Variables Unmatched group Matched group
H2RA group PPI group SMD H2RA group PPI group SMD
n = 1227 n = 1879   n = 1088 n = 1088  
Age, mean (SD) 74.5 (13.1) 73.7 (13.0) 0.06 74.2 (13.2) 74.4 (12.9) 0.02
Age category    0.09    0.06
 10–19 1 (0.1) 0 (0.0)   1 (0.1) 0 (0.0)  
 20–29 7 (0.7) 6 (0.5)   5 (0.5) 4 (0.4)  
 30–39 19 (1.8) 23 (2.0)   19 (1.7) 19 (1.7)  
 40–49 30 (2.8) 39 (3.4)   31 (2.8) 27 (2.5)  
 50–59 91 (8.6) 96 (8.5)   82 (7.5) 88 (8.1)  
 60–69 198 (18.7) 207 (18.3)   196 (18.0) 196 (18.0)  
 70–79 324 (30.6) 342 (30.2)   308 (28.3) 301 (27.7)  
 80–89 326 (30.8) 365 (32.3)   364 (33.5) 366 (33.6)  
 90–99 62 (5.9) 52 (4.6)   80 (7.4) 85 (7.8)  
 100– 0 (0.0) 1 (0.1)   2 (0.2) 2 (0.2)  
Sex (female), n (%) 615 (50.1) 891 (47.4) 0.05 545 (50.1) 542 (49.8) 0.01
ICU admission, n (%) 449 (36.6) 867 (46.1) 0.20 414 (38.1) 434 (39.9) 0.04
HCU admission, n (%) 52 (4.2) 99 (5.3) 0.05 50 (4.6) 50 (4.6) < 0.001
Hospital type (academic center), n (%) 240 (19.6) 606 (32.3) 0.29 239 (22.0) 206 (18.9) 0.08
Hospital volume, case/year mean (SD) 5.5 (4.9) 7.2 (7.4) 0.27 5.7 (5.1) 5.7 (5.2) 0.01
Comorbidity,n(%)
 Myocardial infarction 16 (1.3) 17 (0.9) 0.04 11 (1.0) 9 (0.8) 0.02
 Congestive heart failure 70 (5.7) 130 (6.9) 0.05 65 (6.0) 58 (5.3) 0.03
 Peripheral vascular disease 16 (1.3) 26 (1.4) 0.01 14 (1.3) 13 (1.2) 0.01
 Cerebrovascular disease 58 (4.7) 72 (3.8) 0.04 47 (4.3) 46 (4.2) 0.01
 Dementia 34 (2.8) 48 (2.6) 0.01 28 (2.6) 27 (2.5) 0.01
 Chronic pulmonary disease 41 (3.3) 52 (2.8) 0.03 30 (2.8) 36 (3.3) 0.03
 Mild liver disease 37 (3.0) 70 (3.7) 0.04 33 (3.0) 32 (2.9) 0.01
 Severe liver disease 1 (0.1) 7 (0.4) 0.06 1 (0.1) 0 (0.0) 0.04
 Rheumatologic disease 30 (2.4) 42 (2.2) 0.01 25 (2.3) 24 (2.2) 0.006
 Hemiplegia or paraplegia 2 (0.2) 3 (0.2) 0.001 2 (0.2) 1 (0.1) 0.03
 Diabetes without chronic complications 120 (9.8) 182 (9.7) 0.003 104 (9.6) 95 (8.7) 0.03
 Diabetes with chronic complications 23 (1.9) 43 (2.3) 0.03 20 (1.8) 21 (1.9) 0.007
 Renal disease 71 (5.8) 183 (9.7) 0.15 69 (6.3) 69 (6.3) < 0.001
 Any malignancy, including leukemia and lymphoma 207 (16.9) 300 (16.0) 0.02 188 (17.3) 184 (16.9) 0.01
 Metastatic solid tumor 66 (5.4) 96 (5.1) 0.01 61 (5.6) 58 (5.3) 0.01
Consciousness level, n (%)
 Alert 925 (75.4) 1308 (69.6) 0.13 808 (74.3) 813 (74.7) 0.01
 Delirium 178 (14.5) 324 (17.2) 0.08 167 (15.3) 166 (15.3) 0.003
 Somnolence 50 (4.1) 100 (5.3) 0.06 43 (4.0) 48 (4.4) 0.02
 Coma 55 (4.5) 115 (6.1) 0.07 53 (4.9) 48 (4.4) 0.02
Intervention, n (%)
 Mechanical ventilation 667 (54.4) 1258 (67.0) 0.26 625 (57.4) 638 (58.6) 0.02
 Intermittent renal replacement therapy 176 (14.3) 364 (19.4) 0.14 170 (15.6) 177 (16.3) 0.02
 Continuous renal replacement therapy 23 (1.9) 64 (3.4) 0.10 21 (1.9) 21 (1.9) < 0.001
 Polymyxin B hemoperfusion 306 (24.9) 552 (29.4) 0.10 284 (26.1) 284 (26.1) < 0.001
 Central venous insertion 350 (28.5) 783 (41.7) 0.28 335 (30.8) 345 (31.7) 0.02
Catecholamine, n (%)
 Dopamine 948 (77.3) 1213 (64.6) 0.28 809 (74.4) 820 (75.4) 0.02
 Noradrenaline 660 (53.8) 1324 (70.5) 0.35 641 (58.9) 631 (58.0) 0.02
 Vasopressin 47 (3.8) 143 (7.6) 0.16 47 (4.3) 47 (4.3) < 0.001
 Adrenaline 69 (5.6) 122 (6.5) 0.04 65 (6.0) 68 (6.2) 0.01
Transfusion,n(%)
 Red cell transfusion 379 (30.9) 733 (39.0) 0.17 361 (33.2) 369 (33.9) 0.02
 Platelets transfusion 54 (4.4) 142 (7.6) 0.13 52 (4.8) 58 (5.3) 0.03
 Fresh frozen plasma transfusion 327 (26.7) 471 (25.1) 0.04 288 (26.5) 292 (26.8) 0.01
 Antithrombin, n (%) 245 (20.0) 463 (24.6) 0.11 234 (21.5) 232 (21.3) 0.004
 Recombinant human soluble thrombomodulin, n (%) 198 (16.1) 383 (20.4) 0.11 190 (17.5) 192 (17.6) 0.005
 Immunoglobulin, n (%) 457 (37.2) 735 (39.1) 0.04 428 (39.3) 393 (36.1) 0.07
 Albumin, n (%) 823 (67.1) 1369 (72.9) 0.13 738 (67.8) 753 (69.2) 0.03
Danaparoid, n (%) 6 (0.5) 22 (1.2) 0.08 6 (0.6) 10 (0.9) 0.04
Low-molecular-weight heparin, n (%) 11 (0.9) 27 (1.4) 0.05 11 (1.0) 14 (1.3) 0.03
Hydrocortisone, n (%) 155 (12.6) 340 (18.1) 0.15 145 (13.3) 145 (13.3) < 0.001
Initial antibiotics use, n (%)
Initial use of two or more 342 (27.9) 568 (30.2) 0.05 320 (29.4) 329 (30.2) 0.02
Penicillin 0 (0.0) 2 (0.1) 0.05 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) < 0.001
Ampicillin 0 (0.0) 2 (0.1) 0.05 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) < 0.001
Ampicillin/sulbactam 27 (2.2) 46 (2.4) 0.02 25 (2.3) 27 (2.5) 0.01
Piperacillin/tazobactam 88 (7.2) 217 (11.5) 0.15 86 (7.9) 97 (8.9) 0.04
First-generation cephalosporin 47 (3.8) 66 (3.5) 0.02 42 (3.9) 45 (4.1) 0.01
Second-generation cephalosporin 499 (40.7) 573 (30.5) 0.21 418 (38.4) 419 (38.5) 0.002
Third-generation cephalosporin without effect for Pseudomonas aeruginosa 43 (3.5) 53 (2.8) 0.04 40 (3.7) 41 (3.8) 0.01
Third-generation cephalosporin with effect for Pseudomonas aeruginosa 3 (0.2) 8 (0.4) 0.03 3 (0.3) 3 (0.3) <0.001
Fourth-generation cephalosporin 30 (2.4) 44 (2.3) 0.01 29 (2.7) 27 (2.5) 0.01
Carbapenem 753 (61.4) 1306 (69.5) 0.17 703 (64.6) 690 (63.4) 0.03
Fluoroquinolone 7 (0.6) 11 (0.6) 0.002 6 (0.6) 5 (0.5) 0.01
Aminoglycoside 18 (1.5) 18 (1.0) 0.05 16 (1.5) 13 (1.2) 0.02
Clindamycin 50 (4.7) 40 (3.5) 0.06 41 (3.8) 45 (4.1) 0.02
Tetracycline 1 (0.1) 5 (0.3) 0.04 1 (0.1) 2 (0.2) 0.03
Macrolide 0 (0.0) 7 (0.4) 0.09 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) < 0.001
Anti-MRSA drug 20 (1.6) 62 (3.3) 0.11 20 (1.8) 20 (1.8) < 0.001
Antifungal drug 4 (0.3) 14 (0.7) 0.06 4 (0.4) 5 (0.5) 0.02
  1. H2RA histamine-2 receptor antagonists, PPI proton pump inhibiter, SD standard deviation, ICU intensive care unit, HCU high care unit, MRSssA methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, SMD standardized mean difference