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Table 3 Comparison of laboratory value and imaging characteristics between COVID-19 patients with normal and elevated D-dimers

From: D-dimer as a biomarker for disease severity and mortality in COVID-19 patients: a case control study

  Normal D-dimer, n = 63 Elevated D-dimer, n = 185 P value
D-dimer (mg/L) 0.35 (0.23–0.42) 1.69 (0.91–5.06) 0.000
PaO2 (mm Hg) 71.63 ± 14.81 67.37 ± 14.48 0.147
PaCO2 (mm Hg) 42.5 ± 8.38 40.13 ± 7.07 0.112
White blood cell count (× 109/L) 4.99 ± 2.44 6.71 ± 3.13 0.000
Lymphocyte count (× 109/L) 1.3 ± 0.59 1.03 ± 0.60 0.002
Neutrophil count (× 109/L) 3.12 ± 2.17 5.11 ± 3.13 0.000
Hemoglobin (g/L) 128.7 ± 13.3 122.6 ± 16.8 0.010
Platelet count (109/L) 221.9 ± 82.9 232.9 ± 92.6 0.405
CD4 (cells/mm3) 337 (165.5–560.5) 263 (109.0–429.5) 0.326
CD8 (cells/mm3) 229 (92–367) 123 (48.25–226.25) 0.122
C-reactive protein (mg/L) 8.5 (5–35.85) 48.4 (10.98–92.25) 0.000
Procalcitonin (ng/mL) 0.05 (0.03–0.08) 0.08 (0.04–0.18) 0.000
Total bilirubin (μmol/L) 10.0 (6.7–13.0) 11.7 (8.6–15.5) 0.050
Combined bilirubin (μmol/L) 3.4 (2.6–5.0) 4.3 (3.3–6.1) 0.030
Alanine aminotransferase (U/L) 21.0 (13.0–39.0) 28.5 (19.0–55.3) 0.001
Aspartate aminotransferase (U/L) 24.0 (17.0–34.5) 33.5 (21.0–49.0) 0.001
Alkaline phosphatase (U/L) 60.4 ± 17.0 77.7 ± 40.3 0.000
Gamma-glutamyl Transferase (U/L) 30.0 (13.5–47.0) 33.5(23.0–68.3) 0.001
Lactate dehydrogenase (IU/L) 250.41 ± 90.4 356.11 ± 185.28 0.000
Serum creatinine (mmol/L) 64.0 (54.0–77.0) 64 (52.0–74.0) 0.715
eGFR (ml/[min*1.73m2]) 97.15 ± 13.99 88.64 ± 24.94 0.001
Blood glucose (mmol/L) 6.49 ± 3.34 7.12 ± 3.94 0.257
Creatine kinase (U/L) 75.0 (50–132.5) 58.5 (33–87.5) 0.057
Prothrombin time (s) 11.7 (11.3–12.3) 12.0 (11.6–12.7) 0.005
Activated partial thromboplastin time (s) 28.2 (26.4–31.15) 27.3 (25.45–29.85) 0.016
Fibrinogen (g/L) 4.03 ± 1.33 4.80 ± 1.57 0.001
Cardiac troponin I (μg/L) 0.01 (0.01–0.01) 0.01 (0.01–0.02) 0.000
B-type natriuretic peptide (pg/mL) 44.45 (18.15–147.6) 222.25 (87.69–461.83) 0.000
Area of affected lung on Chest CT, n (%)    0.000
 ≤ 30% 37 (58.7) 51 (27.6)  
 31–50% 16 (25.4) 61 (33.0)  
 ≥ 50% 10 (15.9) 73 (39.4)  
Predominant feature on Chest CT, n (%)    0.287
 Ground glass opacities 40 (63.5) 94 (50.8)  
 Patchy consolidations 12 (19.1) 41 (22.2)  
 Fibrous stripes 4 (6.3) 25 (13.5)  
 Irregular solid nodules 7 (11.1) 25 (13.5)  
Pericardial effusion, n (%) 1 (1.6) 4 (2.2) 0.800