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Table 2 Comparison of demographic and clinical characteristics between COVID-19 patients with normal and elevated D-dimers

From: D-dimer as a biomarker for disease severity and mortality in COVID-19 patients: a case control study

  Normal D-dimer, n = 63 Elevated D-dimer, n = 185 P value
Age (years) 58.0 ± 14.4 64.6 ± 12.6 0.001
Male gender (%) 32 (50.8) 103 (55.7) 0.502
Underlying disease, n (%)
 Hypertension 12 (19.0) 66 (35.7) 0.014
 Diabetes mellitus 7 (11.1) 37 (20.0) 0.319
 Coronary artery disease 3 (4.8) 9 (4.9) 1.000
 Chronic kidney disease 0 (0) 6 (3.2)  
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 0 (0) 4 (2.2)  
Time since symptom onset (days) 10.5 ± 4.8 11.8 ± 5.1 0.069
Highest temperature (°C) 38.1 ± 0.9 38.1 ± 1.0 0.948
Clinical staging at admission, n (%)    0.000
 Mild-moderate 40 (63.5) 50 (27.0)  
 Severe 20 (31.7) 88 (47.6)  
 Critically ill 3 (4.8) 47 (25.4)  
Wells’ score, n (%)    0.230
 < 2 points 60 (95.2) 167 (90.3)  
 2–6 points 2 (3.2) 15 (8.1)  
 > 6 points 1 (1.6) 3 (1.6)  
Geneva score, n (%)    0.105
 0–3 points 34 (54.0) 78 (42.2)  
 4–10 points 29 (46.0) 107 (57.8)  
 ≥ 11 points 0 0  
CURB-65, n (%)    0.008
 Score 0 30 (47.62) 64 (34.59)  
 Score 1 25 (39.68) 68 (36.76)  
 Score 2 5 (7.94) 20 (10.81)  
 Score 3 3 (4.76) 17 (9.19)  
 Score 4 0 (0) 15 (8.11)  
 Score 5 0 (0) 1 (0.54)  
SOFA score 1 (0–1) 1 (0–3) 0.007
qSOFA score 0 (0–0) 0 (0–1) 0.084
ITSH-DIC score 0 (0–0) 2 (2–3) 0.000
Oxygen treatment, n (%)    0.114
 Nasal cannula/face mask 28 (44.4) 101 (54.6)  
 NIMV 2 (3.2) 24 (13.0)  
 IMV 0 12 (6.5)  
 IMV + ECMO 0 1 (0.5)  
Anticoagulation therapy 12 (19.0) 73 (39.5) 0.000
Length of hospital stay 28.3 ± 12.5 31.7 ± 12.3 0.078
In-hospital mortality, n (%) 0 17 (9.2) 0.008
  1. NMV non-invasive mechanical ventilation (including high flow nasal cannula), INMV invasive mechanical ventilation, ECMO extracorporeal membrane oxygenation