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Table 1 Patient clinical characteristics

From: Neuromuscular electrical stimulation in critically ill traumatic brain injury patients attenuates muscle atrophy, neurophysiological disorders, and weakness: a randomized controlled trial

  Group
Patient characteristics Control NMES
n 30 30
Age, years 33 (95% CI 29 to 37) 30 (95% CI 27 to 33)
Male sex, n (%) 26 (87%) 26 (87%)
AIS (head) 5 [5–5] 5 [5–5]
AIS (lower extremities) 1 [0–1] 1 [0–1]
Injury severity score 26 [26–30] 27 [26–34]
Cause of injury
• Motorcycle, n (%) 11 (37%) 10 (33%)
• Motor Vehicle, n (%) 7 (23%) 2 (7%)
• Beating, n (%) 8 (27%) 3 (10%)
• Gunshot, n (%) 2 (7%) 6 (20%)
• Pedestrians, n (%) 1 (3%) 4 (13%)
• Fall, n (%) 1 (3%) 5 (17%)
Penetrating trauma mechanism, n (%) 3 (10%) 8 (27%)
Operative intervention, n (%) 20 (67%) 20 (67%)
APACHE II at ICU admission 11 [9–14] 11 [8–13]
SOFA at ICU admission 6 [4–9] 5 [5–8]
SAPS 3 at ICU admission 40 [32–47] 40 [30–48]
Diffuse axonal injury grade 2 [2–3] 3 [2–3]
Leucocytes on admission, unit 18.8 (95% CI 8.1 to 29.4) 16.7 (95% CI 14.5 to 18.9)
PaO2/FiO2 ratio on admission 296 (95% CI 260 to 331) 276 (95% CI 242 to 311)
Glucose over 14 days, mg/dl 144 (95% CI 130 to 158) 144 (95% CI 133 to 155)
Predicted enteral feeding, (%) 77 (95% CI 74 to 80) 79 (95% CI 75 to 83)
Use of vasopressor drugs, days 7 (95% CI 5.1 to 8.9) 7.7 (95% CI 6 to 9.4)
Use of corticoid drugs, days 0 0
Use of carbapenem antibiotics, n (%) 0 0
Days of sedation on ICU, days 10.8 (95% CI 9 to 12.5) 10.9 (95% CI 9 to 12.7)
Patients sedated on day 14, n (%) 19 (63%) 19 (63%)
RASS on day 14 − 3 [− 4 to − 3] − 3 [− 5 to − 3]
  1. AIS Abbreviated Injury Scale, APACHE II Acute Physiologic and Chronic Health Evaluation II, ICU intensive care unit, SOFA Sequential Organ Failure Assessment, SAPS 3 Simplified Acute Physiology Score 3, PaO2/FiO2 ratio of arterial oxygen partial pressure to fractional inspired oxygen, RASS Richmond Agitation Sedation Scale. Parametric variables are reported as mean and (95% confidence interval) and nonparametric, as median and [interquartile range]