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Table 1 Characteristics and outcomes of encephalopathic patients and those with and without non-convulsive seizures

From: Non-convulsive seizures in the encephalopathic critically ill cancer patient does not necessarily portend a poor prognosis

Variable All patients Seizures* No seizures* p value
(n = 317) (n = 46) (n = 271)
General characteristics     
 Age 60.2 ± 14.6, 62 (18–89) 59.3 ± 14.6, 62 (18–84) 60.4 ± 14.7, 62 (18–89) 0.775
 Gender (male) 59.3% 43.5% 62.0% 0.018
 Type of malignancy     0.609
  Hematological 61.8% 65.3% 61.3%  
  Solid tumor 38.2% 34.7% 38.7%  
 Metastatic disease 72.7% 56.3% 75.2% 0.112
 Active disease (no remission) 86.8% 86.9% 86.7% 0.965
 Stem cell transplant (yes) 31.6% 26.1% 18.5% 0.284
 Co-morbidity index ≥ 5 68.5% 63.0% 69.4% 0.393
 Chemotherapy within 10 days 24.3% 41.3% 21.4% 0.0036
 CNS malignancy involvement** 26.5% 39.0% 24.4% 0.0358
 Medical history of seizure disorder 10.4% 13.0% 9.9% 0.527
Admission diagnosis     
 Altered mental status 30.9% 60.9% 25.8% < 0.0001
 Respiratory failure 25.9% 4.3% 29.5%  
 Severe sepsis/shock 18.0% 10.9% 19.2%  
 Cardiac arrest 11.7% 10.9% 11.8%  
 Stroke (hemorrhagic or ischemic) 2.8% 6.5% 2.2%  
 Other 10.7% 6.5% 11.5%  
Variables during ICU stay     
 Days from admission to EEG*** 5.5 ± 7.5, 3 (1–69) 3.9 ± 5.3, 2 (1–30) 5.7 ± 7.8, 3 (1–69) 0.141
 SOFA on admission# 8.5 ± 3.7, 8 (0–19) 7.7 ± 3.1, 7 (1–15) 8.6 ± 3.8, 9 (1–19) 0.170
 SOFA at time of EEG# 9.9 ± 4.0, 10 (3–22) 8.5 ± 3.1, 8 (3–15) 10.2 ± 4.1, 10 (3–22) 0.0129
 GCS at time of EEG (median)^ 7 (3–12) 7 (3–12) 7 (3–12) 0.720
 Vasopressors (yes) 56.5% 36.9% 59.8% 0.0039
 Acute renal failure (yes) 52.4% 30.4% 56.1% 0.0013
 Mechanical ventilation (yes) 79.5% 69.6% 81.2% 0.071
 Use of sedatives (yes) 49.8% 36.9% 52.0% 0.059
 Cardiac arrest during ICU stay 13.2% 10.9% 13.7% 0.814
 Abnormal brain imaging 47.0% 60.9% 44.6% 0.0416
 Meningitis/encephalitis 4.1% 8.7% 3.3% 0.103
 Medications given in the ICU ^^ 31.9% 39.1% 30.6% 0.253
 Abnormal electrolytes 4.4% 4.3% 4.4% 1
 PRES+ 1.3% 2.2% 1.1% 0.467
 CNS malignancy involvement 26.5% 39.0% 24.4% 0.0358
 CAR T cell therapy++ 4.7% 15.2% 2.9% 0.0003
Outcomes     
 Improvement of GCS prior to discharge 44.2% 52.2% 42.8% 0.237
 ICU Length of stay 13.8 ± 13.8 12.5 ± 11.5 14.1 ± 14.2 0.655
 Hospital Length of stay 22.3 ± 21.2 21.3 ± 18.4 22.5 ± 21.7 0.857
 Overall mortality 60.9% 45.7% 63.5% 0.022
  1. *Non-convulsive seizures
  2. **Central nervous system
  3. ***Electroencephalogram
  4. #Sequential Organ Failure Assessment
  5. ^Glasgow Coma Score
  6. ^^ Medications known to cause seizures
  7. + Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome
  8. ++ Chimeric Antigen Receptor