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Table 2 Survey 1: types of consent acceptable for observational research both before and after reading background information

From: Parental opinions regarding consent for observational research of no or minimal risk in the pediatric intensive care unit

Type of observational researchSigned informed consentOpt-out consentPhysician’s consentWaived consentBroad authorization consentSome alternative methodNo method
Observational retrospective (e.g., chart review)
 No background26 (52%)19 (38%)17 (34%)15 (30%)22 (44%)41 (82%)1 (2%)
 Background 130 (60%)23 (46%)12 (24%)11 (22%)21 (42%)36 (72%)2 (4%)
 Background 224 (48%)20 (40%)13 (26%)14 (28%)18 (36%)45 (90%)0 (0%)
 Background 324 (48%)17 (34%)16 (32%)13 (26%)18 (36%)40 (80%)0 (0%)
P valuep=0.59p=0.670.650.900.790.150.29
Observational prospective (e.g., chart review)
 No background26 (52%)18 (36%)16 (32%)14 (28%)21 (42%)41 (82%)0 (0%)
 Background 127 (54%)25 (50%)13 (26%)10 (20%)22 (44%)40 (80%)1 (2%)
 Background 221 (42%)21 (42%)16 (32%)13 (26%)18 (36%)41 (82%)1 (2%)
 Background 323 (46%)17 (34%)18 (36%)11 (22%)17 (34%)39 (78%)1 (2%)
P value0.610.360.760.780.700.950.80
Observational prospective with no risk intervention (e.g., soothing music)
 No background19 (38%)27 (54%)12 (24%)13 (26%)17 (34%)44 (88%)1 (2%)
 Background 120 (40%)28 (56%)13 (26%)13 (26%)19 (38%)44 (88%)2 (4%)
 Background 218 (36%)25 (50%)16 (32%)8 (16%)18 (36%)44 (88%)1 (2%)
 Background 323 (46%)22 (44%)16 (32%)9 (18%)19 (38%)41 (82%)1 (2%)
P value0.760.640.740.480.970.760.89
Observational prospective with minimal risk intervention (e.g., measuring blood pressure)
 No background25 (50%)20 (40%)17 (34%)9 (18%)14 (28%)41 (82%)1 (2%)
 Background 123 (46%)21 (42%)13 (26%)9 (18%)21 (42%)40 (80%)2 (4%)
 Background 226 (52%)17 (34%)17 (34%)6 (12%)16 (32%)38 (76%)1 (2%)
 Background 325 (50%)18 (36%)15 (30%)6 (12%)16 (32%)37 (74%)1 (2%)
P value0.940.840.790.700.490.760.89
  1. Data as n (%). Statistical comparisons by Chi-square test