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Table 3 Outcomes

From: Change in diaphragm and intercostal muscle thickness in mechanically ventilated patients: a prospective observational ultrasonography study

OutcomesChange in diaphragm thicknessChange in intercostal muscle thickness
Decreased thickness (n = 50)Unchanged (n = 15)Increased thickness (n = 15)p valueDecreased thickness (n = 48)Unchanged (n = 17)Increased thickness (n = 15)p value
Duration of mechanical ventilation, day7 (5–15)a4 (3–5)7 (4–12)a< 0.018 (5–17)a4 (3–6)6 (5–8)< 0.01
Length of ICU stay, day10 (6–16)a5 (5–7)8 (5–15)< 0.0110 (6–18)a5 (4–9)7 (5–10)< 0.01
Length of hospital stay, day34 (22–54)32 (13–118)27 (11–65)0.7134 (22–72)29 (13–46)34 (16–65)0.37
Reintubation, n (%)9 (18)1 (7)1 (7)0.3610 (21)1 (6)0 (0)0.07
Tracheostomy, n (%)12 (24)1 (7)2 (13)0.2712 (25)1 (6)2 (13)0.19
The use of HFNC, n (%)29 (58)8 (53)7 (47)0.7327 (56)9 (53)8 (53)0.96
The use of NPPV, n (%)3 (6)0 (0)0 (0)0.392 (4)1 (6)0 (0)0.66
Mortality in the ICU, n (%)10 (20)0 (0)1 (7)0.108 (17)0 (0)3 (20)0.17
Mortality in the hospital, n (%)18 (36)1 (7)5 (33)0.0917 (35)1 (6)6 (40)0.048
  1. Data were expressed as median (IQR) unless otherwise indicated. p values were obtained using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) or the Kruskal-Wallis test
  2. ICU intensive care unit, HFNC high-flow nasal cannula, NPPV noninvasive positive pressure ventilation
  3. aSignificant at p < 0.05 vs. unchanged by post hoc Dunnett’s or Steel’s test