Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 2 The relationship of changes in diaphragm and intercostal muscle thickness with patient characteristics, medications, and ventilator mode

From: Change in diaphragm and intercostal muscle thickness in mechanically ventilated patients: a prospective observational ultrasonography study

VariablesChange in diaphragm thicknessChange in intercostal muscle thickness
Decreased thickness (n = 50)Unchanged (n = 15)Increased thickness (n = 15)p valueDecreased thickness (n = 48)Unchanged (n = 17)Increased thickness (n = 15)p value
Age, mean ± SD, year69 ± 269 ± 361 ± 30.1070 ± 264 ± 366 ± 30.32
Male/female34/1610/510/50.9932/1613/49/60.60
Body mass index, mean ± SD, kg/m223 ± 124 ± 124 ± 10.7223 ± 1a26 ± 124 ± 1< 0.01
APACHE II score23 (18–29)22 (20–31)26 (22–32)0.6225 (17–30)22 (17–27)26 (22–32)0.35
SOFA, mean in the first 3 days9 (6–12)8 (4–9)10 (5–14)0.339 (5–12)7 (5–9)9 (6–14)0.22
Sepsis (sepsis-3 criteria), n (%)22 (44)5 (33)4 (27)0.4318 (38)6 (35)7 (47)0.77
Surgical admissions, n (%)19 (38)3 (20)6 (40)0.4018 (38)3 (18)7 (47)0.19
Medications, n (%)
Catecholamine*35 (70)11 (73)10 (67)0.9235 (73)10 (59)11 (73)0.53
Neuromuscular blocking agents†7 (14)1 (7)0 (0)0.256 (13)1 (6)1 (7)0.66
Steroids‡18 (36)5 (33)2 (13)0.2518 (38)3 (18)4 (27)0.29
Aminoglycoside1 (2)1 (7)0 (0)0.471 (2)0 (0)1 (7)0.46
Opioid44 (88)13 (87)11 (73)0.3742 (88)16 (94)10 (67)0.07
Midazolam18 (36)7 (46)7 (47)0.6420 (42)7 (41)5 (33)0.84
Dexmedetomidine24 (48)6 (40)4 (27)0.3323 (48)4 (24)7 (47)0.20
Propofol8 (16)3 (20)6 (40)0.147 (15)7 (41)3 (20)0.07
Ventilatory settings during first 3 days
Controlled (ACV)/partial assist (PSV)47/314/114/10.9646/215/214/10.76
Set inspiratory pressure above PEEP12 (10–12)10 (10–12)12 (10–14)0.2812 (10–13)a10 (10–12)12 (10–14)a0.02
PEEP, cmH2O8 (6–10)8 (6–10)6 (6–8)0.318 (6–10)8 (7–11)8 (6–8)0.11
Tidal volume/PBW, mL/kg8.2 (7.3–9.6)8.6 (7.6–10.2)7.8 (7.2–9.7)0.528.2 (7.2–9.7)8.0 (7.8–9.7)8.1 (7.2–9.7)0.90
  1. Data were expressed as median (IQR) unless otherwise indicated. p values were obtained using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) or the Kruskal-Wallis test
  2. SD standard deviation, APACHE Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation, SOFA Sequential Organ Failure Assessment, ACV assist-control ventilation, PSV pressure-support ventilation, PEEP positive end-expiratory pressure, PBW predicted body weight
  3. aSignificant at p < 0.05 vs. Unchanged by post hoc Dunnett’s or Steel’s test
  4. *Catecholamine (dopamine, dobutamine, noradrenaline, or adrenaline)
  5. †Neuromuscular blockers with continuous use
  6. ‡Corticosteroids with intravenous or peroral use