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Table 2 Comparison of the clinical outcomes between study groups

From: Determinants of gait independence after mechanical ventilation in the intensive care unit: a Japanese multicenter retrospective exploratory cohort study

  Total (n = 132) Gait independence (n = 84) Gait dependence (n = 48) p value
ICU and hospital outcome
 Time to first rehabilitation (day) 2 [2–4] 2 [2–4] 3 [2–4] 0.906
 Duration of mechanical ventilation (day) 5 [3–7] 5 [3–7] 5 [4–8] 0.211
 Time to first out-of-bed mobilization (day) 6 [4–9] 6 [4–10] 6 [4–9] 0.151
 Highest reach IMS at ICU entry 4 [3–5] 3 [3–5] 3 [3–6] 0.089
 Delirium, n (%) 51 (38.6) 23 (27.7) 28 (58.3) < .0001
 MRC sum-score at ICU discharge 45 [36–48] 48 [36–54] 36 [28–48] < .0001
 ICU-AW at ICU discharge, n (%) 66 (50.0) 36 (42.9) 30 (62.5) < .0001
 ICU length of stay (day) 8 [5–11] 7 [5–11] 8 [6–12] 0.025
 Hospital length of stay (day) 40 [22–59] 41 [21–61] 40 [22–57] 0.909
 Discharge to home, n (%) 81 (61.4) 60 (71.4) 21 (43.8) < .0001
Early mobilization levels, session (%)
 Level 3 121 (70.5) 76 (69.1) 44 (73.3) 0.560
 Level 4 41 (24.1) 27 (24.5) 14 (23.3) 0.859
 Level 5 9 (5.4) 7 (6.4) 2 (3.4) 0.495
 Total session for levels 3 to 5 170 110 60
Adverse event during ICU rehabilitation, n (%)
 Cardiopulmonary arrest 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0)
 Fall to knees or ground 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0)
 Inadvertent removal of medical devices 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0)
 Desaturation 4 (1.8) 1 (0.9) 3 (6.0) 0.255
 Tachypnea or bradypnea 1 (0.4) 0 (0) 1 (2.0)
 Tachycardia or bradycardia 4 (1.8) 3 (2.7) 0 (0)
 Hypertension or hypotension 10 (4.4) 4 (3.6) 3 (6.0) 0.512
 New arrhythmia 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0)
  1. Median [25th–75th percentile] or the number of patients (percentage). Independent-sample Mann-Whitney U test or χ2 test. ICU intensive care unit, IMS ICU-mobility scale, MRC Medical Research Council, ICU-AW ICU-acquired weakness, BI Barthel Index