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Table 2 Characteristics of patients with infection on admission and with ICU-acquired infection and stratified by presence of sepsis-3 criteria

From: Robustness of sepsis-3 criteria in critically ill patients

  Infection at admission (N = 1081) ICU-acquired infection (N = 501)
No sepsis-3
(N = 105)
Sepsis-3
(N = 976)
p value No sepsis-3
(N = 241)
Sepsis-3
(N = 260)
p value
Age (years) 61 (42, 69) 64 (53, 73) 0.005 62 (51, 71) 61 (50, 71) 0.64
Male 64 (61%) 621 (64%) 0.59 175 (73%) 177 (68%) 0.27
Charlson comorbidity index 0 (0, 2) 1 (0, 2) 0.002 0 (0, 2) 0 (0, 2) 0.33
Chronic renal insufficiencya 9 (9%) 114 (12%) 0.34 20 (8%) 25 (10%) 0.6
APACHE IV Score 69 (50, 89) 83 (66, 03) 0.001 76 (58, 95) 76 (62, 99) 0.24
Medical admission 69 (66%) 726 (74%) 0.06 102 (42%) 104 (40%) 0.60
At onset of infection
 Days from ICU admission 0 (0, 2) 0 (0, 0) < 0.001 6 (4, 8) 6 (4, 9) 0.32
 Hospital-acquired infection 65 (62%) 449 (46%) 0.002 100% (100%)
 Vasopressor use 36 (35%) 663 (68%) < 0.001 98 (41%) 141 (54%) 0.002
 Mechanical ventilation 78 (74%) 664 (68%) 0.19 189 (78%) 240 (92%) < 0.001
 Lactate measured 37 (35%) 676 (69%) < 0.001 72 (30%) 109 (42%) 0.005
 Lactate 1.8 (1, 4) 3 (2, 5) 0.002 2 (1, 2) 2 (2, 4) < 0.001
 ≥ 2 SIRS criteria 88(83%) 900 (92%) 0.004 205 (85%) 226 (87%) 0.55
 SOFA score 2 (1, 4) 6 (4, 9) < 0.001 6 (4, 8) 8 (5, 10) < 0.001
Source of infection    0.08    0.39
 Pulmonary tract 70 (67%) 533 (55%)   138 (57%) 154 (59%)  
 Abdominal tract 7 (7%) 156 (16%)   7 (3%) 12 (5%)  
 Urinary tract 6 (6%) 57 (6%)   1 (0%) 1 (0%)  
 CRBSI 1 (1%) 15 (2%)   36 (15%) 25 (10%)  
 Other 21 (20%) 215 (22%)   59 (24%) 68 (26%)  
Infection likelihood    0.02    0.13
▪ None 11 (10%) 99 (10%)   85 (35%) 82 (32%)  
▪ Possible 46 (44%) 298 (31%)   109 (45%) 105 (40%)  
▪ Probable 30 (29%) 293 (30%)   31 (13%) 43 (17%)  
▪ Definite 18 (17%) 286 (29%)   16 (7%) 30 (12%)  
Outcome
 Length of ICU stay (days) 2 (1, 6) 4.0 (2, 10) < .001 6 (3, 13) 7 (3, 15) 0.12
 Length of hospital (days) 13 (5, 29) 15 (7, 31) 0.09 19 (9, 34) 22 (9, 38) 0.64
 ICU mortality 8 (8%) 197 (20%) 0.002 52 (22%) 82 (32%) 0.01
 Hospital mortality 12 (11%) 277 (28%) 0.001 72 (30%) 103 (40%) 0.05
 90-day mortality 20 (19%) 328 (34%) 0.002 83 (35%) 114 (44%) 0.03
  1. APACHE = acute physiologic and chronic health evaluation, SIRS = systemic inflammatory response syndrome, ICU = intensive care unit, CRBSI = catheter-related bloodstream infection. Continuous data are presented as medians (IQR), dichotomous data are presented as frequencies (%)
  2. aCreatinine >170 mmol/L or dialysis dependency