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Table 1 Patient and institution characteristics

From: The development and validation of a “5A” severity scale for predicting in-hospital mortality after accidental hypothermia from J-point registry data

Parameters Development cohort Validation cohort Total cohort
  (N = 288) (N = 244) (N = 532)
Male, n (%) 144 (50.0%) 126 (51.6%) 270 (50.8%)
Age, years, median (IQR) 79 (69–87) 79 (64–87) 79 (67–87)
 < 60, n (%) 37 (12.8%) 42 (19.3%) 79 (14.8%)
 60–69 35 (12.2%) 37 (15.2%) 72 (13.5%)
 70–79 76 (26.4%) 48 (19.7%) 124 (23.3%)
 ≥ 80 140 (48.6%) 117 (48.0%) 257 (48.3%)
Activities of daily living
 Independent n (%) 190 (66.0%) 178 (73.0%) 368 (69.2%)
 Disturbance 96 (33.3%) 66 (27.0%) 162 (30.5%)
 Missing 2 (0.7%) 0 (0.0%) 2 (0.4%)
Comorbidities
 Cardiovascular diseases, n (%) 126 (43.8%) 111 (45.5%) 237 (44.5%)
 Neurological diseases 53 (18.4%) 40 (16.4%) 93 (17.5%)
 Endocrine diseases 83 (28.8%) 47 (19.3%) 130 (24.4%)
 Psychiatric diseases 55 (19.1%) 63 (25.8%) 118 (22.2%)
 Malignant diseases 12 (4.2%) 4 (1.6%) 16 (3.0%)
 Dementia 57 (19.8%) 51 (20.9%) 108 (20.3%)
 Other 56 (19.4%) 38 (15.6%) 94 (17.7%)
External and minimally invasive rewarming
 Warm intravenous fluid, n (%) 223 (77.4%) 168 (68.9%) 391 (73.5%)
 Forced warm air 80 (27.8%) 4 (1.6%) 84 (15.8%)
 Warm environment, blanket 242 (84.0%) 222 (91.0%) 464 (87.2%)
 Other 23 (8.0%) 15 (6.1%) 38 (7.1%)
Active internal rewarming
 Lavage, n (%) 29 (10.1%) 15 (6.1%) 44 (8.3%)
 CHDF 4 (1.4%) 17 (7.0%) 21 (3.9%)
 VV-ECMO 0 (0.0%) 2 (0.8%) 2 (0.4%)
 VA-ECMO 3 (1.0%) 17 (7.0%) 20 (3.8%)
In-hospital mortality, n (%) 64 (22.2%) 66 (27.0%) 130 (24.4%)
Institution
 CCMC, n (%) 4 (66.7%) 4 (66.7%) 8 (66.7%)
 ED visit, median (IQR) 19,651 (12,076–28,439) 20,798 (12,319–28,801) 19,651 (13,252–27,811)
 Number of beds, median (IQR) 640 (513–825) 374 (331–512) 510 (364–668)
  1. IQR interquartile range, CHDF continuous hemodiafiltration, VV veno-venous, VA veno-arterial, ECMO extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, CCMC critical care medical center, ED Visit annual number of emergency department visit