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Table 1 Patient characteristics

From: Timing of administration of epinephrine predicts the responsiveness to epinephrine in norepinephrine-refractory septic shock: a retrospective study

Characteristics Total (41) Responders (24) Non-responders (17) P value
At the day of ICU admission
 Age, years 63.9 ± 15.2 65.3 ± 13.3 61.8 ± 17.6 0.476
 Male, n (%) 25 (60) 15 (63) 10 (59) > 0.999
 BMI 21.8 ± 5.8 22.1 ± 7.0 21.3 ± 3.8 0.657
 SOFA score 15 (12–16) 13 (12–15) 16 (14–19) 0.009
 APACHE II score 33 (29–39) 36 (30–39) 32 (27–37) 0.597
 Creatinine, mg/dL 1.46 (0.93–2.29) 1.82 (0.92–2.39) 1.20 (0.99–1.71) 0.327
 Bilirubin, mg/dL 1.4 (0.9–4.4) 1.05 (0.8–1.6) 1.7 (1.1–7.3) 0.065
 Platelet count 71 (44–119) 105 (54–176) 50 (25–71) 0.022
 CRP, mg/dL 10.5 (6.2–18.5) 9.83 (5.9–15.3) 10.5 (6.4–22.9) 0.666
 PCT, ng/mL 9.4 (1.4–51.9) 17.1 (1.8–52.9) 5.70 (1.2–27.2) 0.39
 WBC × 103/μL 10.7 (3.7–17.1) 14.0 (5.1–19.5) 7.4 (1.2–13.1) 0.153
 Hct 29.8 (28.2–32.2) 30.8 (29.1–32.5) 28.6 (27.5–29.9) 0.09
 PT-INR 1.38 (1.16–1.7) 1.39 (1.15–1.74) 1.29 (1.23–1.58) 0.624
 FDP, μg/ml 16.4 (11.1–38.3) 14.5 (9.8–32.1) 22.6 (3.0–50.6) 0.321
 BNP, pg/ml 432 (119–1168) 463 (128–1169) 248 (119–961) 0.767
 AT3 activity, % 54 (45–66) 49 (39–63) 59 (50–75) 0.068
 Focus of infection
  Soft tissue, n 5 5 0 0.065
  Respiratory, n 10 7 3 0.48
  Central nervous system, n 2 1 1 > 0.999
  Gastrointestinal, n 3 1 2 > 0.999
  Hepatobiliary, n 5 2 3 0.633
  Bacteremia or other, n 16 9 7 > 0.999
 At the time of epinephrine infusion
  MAP, mmHg 51.3 ± 11.2 52.1 ± 10 50.3 ± 13 0.613
  PP, mmHg 24.7 ± 12 26.3 ± 11 22.5 ± 13 0.317
  HR, bpm 107 ± 21 103 ± 21 113 ± 20 0.149
  CVP, mm Hg 15 (12–17) 13 (11–17) 15 (13–18) 0.2
  Lactate, mmol/L 4.4 (2.6–8.9) 3.4 (2.1–7.6) 6.0 (3.6–9.6) 0.098
  pH 7.309 (7.386–7.181) 7.336 (7.212–7.386) 7.261 (7.098–7.386) 0.266
  P-F ratio 163 (92–302) 222 (111–354) 131 (83–164) 0.093
  Norepinephrine, μg/kg/min 0.2 (0.17–0.25) 0.19 (0.17–0.23) 0.25 (0.16–0.28) 0.467
  Epinephrine, μg/kg/min* 0.07 (0.03–0.1) 0.05 (0.03–0.1) 0.08 (0.07–0.14) 0.068
  Time-epi, h** 24 (12–72) 18 (12–24) 72 (6.0–144) 0.004
 Adjunctive therapy
  Fluid infusion, ml*** 559 (426–808) 559 (418–762) 559 (447–958) 0.989
  Corticosteroid, n (%) 35 (85) 20 (83) 15 (88) > 0.999
  Vasopressin, i (%) 20 (49) 10 (42) 10 (59) 0.35
  CRRT, n (%) 28 (68) 15 (63) 13 (76) 0.505
  VA-ECMO, n (%) 3 (7) 0 (0) 3 (18) 0.006
 Endpoints
  ΔMAP after initiation, mmHg **** 13 (0–22) 20 (14–29) -1 (− 7 to 6) < 0.001
  Lactate 3 h after initiation, mmol/L 6.4 (3.1–11.5) 4.2 (2.8–9.0) 11.4 (5.1–13.8) 0.039
  Survival from shock, n (%) ***** 25 (61) 22 (92) 3 (18) < 0.001
  28-day survival, n (%) 23 (56) 20 (83) 3 (18) < 0.001
  1. ICU intensive care unit, BMI body mass index, SOFA Sequential Organ Failure Assessment, APACHE acute physiology and chronic health evaluation, CRP C-reactive protein, PCT procalcitonin, WBC white blood cell, PT-INR: prothrombin time-international normalized ratio, FDP: fibrin degradation product, BNP brain natriuretic peptide, AT3 anti-thrombin 3, MAP mean arterial pressure, PP pulse pressure, HR heart rate, CVP central venous pressure, CRRT continuous renal replacement therapy, VA-ECMO veno-arterial membrane oxygenation
  2. *Median epinephrine dose of initial 3-h administration
  3. **Time of epinephrine administration after ICU admission
  4. ***Fluid administration during initial 3 h of epinephrine use
  5. ****MAP change 3 h after epinephrine initiation
  6. *****7-day survival without the use of mechanical circulatory support
  7. Data are presented as the mean ± standard deviation, the median and interquartile ranges (25–75% percentile), or as absolute frequencies with percentages