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Table 1 Comparisons of total intravenous fluid and vasopressor use of researches by Rivers et al. in 2001, and the ProCESS, ARISE, and ProMISe in 2014 to 2015

From: Aggressive fluid management in the critically ill: Pro

  Total intravenous fluid (mL) Vasopressors use (%)
Baseline (pre-randomization) 0–6 h 6–72 h 0–72 h Baseline (pre-randomization) 0–6 h 6–72 h 0–72 h
Rivers E, et al (2001) [3]
 Standard therapy (n = 133) 3499 ± 2438 10,602 ± 6216 13,358 ± 7729 30.3 42.9 51.3
 EGDT (n = 130) 4981 ± 2984 8625 ± 5162 13,443 ± 6390 27.4 29.1 36.8
ProCESS (2014) [4]
 Protocol-based EGDT (n = 439) 2245 ± 1472 2805 ± 1957 4458 ± 3878 7253 ± 4605 19.1 54.9 47.6 60.4
 Protocol-based standard (n = 446) 2226 ± 1363 3285 ± 1743 4918 ± 4308 8193 ± 4989 16.8 52.2 46.6 61.2
 Usual care (n = 456) 2083 ± 1405 2279 ± 1881 4354 ± 3882 6633 ± 4560 15.1 44.1 43.2 53.7
ARISE (2014) [5]
 EGDT (n = 793) 2515 ± 1244 1964 ± 1415 4274 ± 3071 21.8 66.6 58.8
 Usual care (n = 798) 2519 ± 1331 1713 ± 1401 4382 ± 3136 21.7 57.8 51.5
ProMISe (2015) [6]
 EGDT (n = 625) 1890 ± 1105 2226 ± 1443 4215 ± 3068 5946 ± 3740 2.4 53.3 57.9 60.5
 Usual resuscitation (n = 626) 1965 ± 1149 2022 ± 1271 4366 ± 3114 5844 ± 3651 3.4 46.6 52.6 55.0
  1. Plus-minus values are means ± SD
  2. Baseline (pre-randomization) means pre-hospital fluids and fluids administered between presentation to the emergency department and randomization