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Table 2 Decline in arm muscle thickness and outcome

From: Trends of loss of peripheral muscle thickness on ultrasonography and its relationship with outcomes among patients with sepsis

Muscle thickness Day 1 Day 3 Day 5 Day 7
a. In-hospital mortality
 Survivors (n) 59 59 53 28
  Muscle thickness (mean ± SD) 23.0 ± 5.4 22.5 ± 4.9 21.9 ± 4.9 21.0 ± 5.3
  % Decline [median (IQR)] NA 3.5 (1.3, 5.8) 5.5 (2.8, 8.8) 4.7 (2.7, 12.1)
 Non-Survivors (n) 11 11 10 7
  Muscle thickness (mean ± SD) 21.6 ± 4.1 19.8 ± 3.7 19.0 ± 2.9 18.0 ± 2.5
  % Decline [median (IQR)] NA 8.8 (6.7, 10.1) 15.5 (13.1, 16.4) 19.6 (10.7, 21.7)
p value (% decline) NA 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.013
b. ICU-acquired weakness
 Absent (n) 55 55 48 23
  Muscle thickness (mean ± SD) 22.4 ± 5.1 22.0 ± 4.5 21.5 ± 4.5 20.5 ± 4.2
  % Decline [median (IQR)] NA 3.6 (1.3, 5.8) 5.6 (2.8, 9.5) 5.6 (2.5, 11.2)
 Present (n) 15 15 15 12
  Muscle thickness (mean ± SD) 24.0 ± 5.9 22.4 ± 5.8 21.4 ± 5.9 20.2 ± 6.4
  % Decline [median (IQR)] NA 6.5 (2.7, 9.6) 11.8 (3.2, 17.1) 16.8 (4.3, 25.7)
p value (% decline) NA 0.01 0.05 0.03
c. 90-day outcome
 Stable outcome (n) 42 42 36 17
  Muscle thickness (mean ± SD) 23.3 ± 5.6 23.3 ± 4.8 23.1 ± 4.8 23.0 ± 5.2
  % Decline [median (IQR)] NA 2.3 (1.0, 3.8) 3.6 (2.6, 5.8) 4.0 (2.1, 4.4)
 Poor outcome (n) 17 17 17 11
  Muscle thickness (mean ± SD) 22.2 ± 5.1 20.5 ± 4.6 19.3 ± 4.4 18.0 ± 3.9
  % Decline [median (IQR)] NA 8.6 (5.9, 11.1) 13.4 (8.8, 17.1) 14.4 (11.2, 17.1)
p value (% decline) NA < 0.0001 < 0.0001 0.0004