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Table 4 Description of the early-ECMO patients and the matched non-ECMO patients, 2003–2012

From: Predictors and outcomes of early post-operative veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation following infant cardiac surgery

Variable All patients (n = 60) Early-ECMO patients (n = 20) Non-ECMO matched patients (n = 40) p value
Matching variables
 Sex (male) 39(65%) 13(65%) 26(65%) 1.000
 Single-ventricle anatomy 39(65%) 13(65%) 26(65%) 1.000
 Birth gestation (weeks) 38.5(1.6) 38(1.7) 38.7(1.5) 0.176
 Year of treatment 2008.2(3.4) 2008.4(3.4) 2008.1(3.4) 0.747
 Chromosomal abnormality 6(10%) 2(10%) 4(10%) 1.000
 Socioeconomic index n = 38 n = 9 n = 29 0.522
44.0(15.0) 47.8(2.1) 42.9(12.6)
Demographic variables
 Antenatal diagnosis 41(68.3%) 12(60%) 29(72.5%) 0.384
 Birth weight (grams) 3227.3(523.8) 3121.5(542.2) 3280(513.1) 0.272
 Age at time of surgery (days) 13.1(10.4) 12.6(8.7) 13.3(11.2) 0.801
 Mother’s years of schooling n = 38 n = 9 n = 29 0.855
13.6(2.5) 13.4(3.2) 13.6(2.3)
Operating room variables
 Cardiopulmonary bypass time (minutes) n = 52 n = 19 n = 33 0.091
120.3(59.6) 142.4(80.9) 107.6(39.1)
 Aortic cross-clamp time (minutes) n = 52 n = 19 n = 33 0.301
56.5(30.2) 63.3(41.3) 52.5(21.2)
 Deep hypothermic circulatory arrest time (minutes) n = 47 n = 16 n = 31 0.304
24(16) 27(19) 22(14)
 Deep hypothermic circulatory arrest used 47(81%) 16(80%) 31(81.6%) 1.000
 Need to re-institute cardiopulmonary bypass 5(9%) 4(20%) 1(2.8%) 0.050
Post-operative day 1 variables
 Highest lactate (mmol/L) 6.3(4.0) 8.2(4.8) 5.4(3.3) 0.027
 Highest vasoactive-inotrope score 22.1(27.3) 36.7(36.1) 14.9(18.1) 0.017
 Highest epinephrine dose (μg/kg/min) 0.18(0.31) 0.21(0.26) 0.16(0.34) 0.579
 Lowest pH 7.28(0.07) 7.26(0.07) 7.30(0.07) 0.100
 Lowest base deficit − 3.3(3.3) − 5.1(3.7) − 2.5(2.7) 0.008
 Highest creatinine (μmol/L) 59.6(23.2) 63.3(28.0) 57.6(20.4) 0.373
 Open sternum from operating room 44(73%) 18(90%) 26(65%) 0.062
 Heart transplant at any time 5 (8%) 3 (15%) 2 (5%) 0.322
Outcomes
 Death by 2 years 22(36.7%) 11(55.0%) 11(27.5%) 0.049
 Death by 30 days 9(15%) 7(35%) 2(5%) 0.004
 General Adaptive Composite on the ABAS-II n = 38 n = 9 n = 29 0.002
85.6 (18.3) 69.7 (12.9) 90.5 (16.9)
 General Adaptive Composite < 70 (2 SD below mean; populations expected 2.27%) 8/38 (21%) 5/9 (56%) 3/29 (10%) 0.010
 Length, z-score at 2 years − 0.47 (1.1) − 0.70 (1.7) − 0.40 (.88) 0.617
 Weight, z-score at 2 years − 0.55 (1.2) − 0.93 (1.7) − 0.43 (.98) 0.267
  1. Data are given as n (%), mean (standard deviation). p value is for Fisher’s exact test (categorical data) or independent samples two-sided t test (continuous data)
  2. ABAS Adaptive Behavior Assessment System