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Table 1 Description of the cohort of patients having, and not having, ECMO within 48 h of surgery from years 2003–2012

From: Predictors and outcomes of early post-operative veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation following infant cardiac surgery

Variable All patients
n = 565
Early-ECMO patients
n = 20
Non-ECMO patients
n = 545
p valuea
Demographic variables
 Sex (male) 350 (62%) 13(65%) 337(62%) 0.775
 Birth gestation (weeks) 38.7(1.8) 38 (1.7) 39 (1.8) 0.420
 Year of treatment 2007.5 (3.2) 2008 (3.4) 2007 (3.2) 0.185
 Chromosomal abnormality 54(9.6%) 2(10.0%) 52(9.5%) 0.945
 Single-ventricle anatomy 191(34%) 13(65%) 178(33%) 0.003
 Antenatal diagnosis 278(49%) 12(60%) 266(49%) 0.317
 Birth weight (grams) 3229.4(608.4) 3121.5(542.2) 3233(611.0) 0.420
 Socioeconomic index (in survivors) (n = 474) 42.5(14.4) (n = 9) 47.8(21.1) (n = 465) 42.4(14.2) 0.473
 Mother’s years of schooling (in survivors) (n = 474) 13.4(2.7) (n = 9) 13.4(3.2) (n = 465) 13.4(2.7) 0.996
Pre-operative variables
 Ventilator days 5.4(6.2) 7.1(5.1) 5.3(6.2) 0.198
 Highest creatinine (μmol/L) 63.3(28.1) 73.8(37.7) 63(27.7) 0.099
 Highest lactate (mmol/L) 3.3(3.3) 4.5(4.2) 3.3(3.2) 0.093
 Highest vasoactive-inotrope score 5.8(13.5) 4.5(7.8) 5.8(13.7) 0.661
 Highest epinephrine dose (μg/kg/min) 0.02(0.11) 0.02(0.04) 0.02(0.11) 0.979
 Age at time of surgery (days) 13.6(10.7) 12.6(8.7) 13.7(10.8) 0.658
Operating room variables
 Cardiopulmonary bypass time (minutes) 113(49.0)
n = 519
142.4(80.9)
n = 19
111.8(47.4)
n = 500
0.118
 Aortic cross-clamp time (minutes) 53(26)
n = 516
63(41)
n = 19
53(25)
n = 497
0.254
 Deep hypothermic circulatory arrest time (minutes) 20(13.6)
n = 377
27.3(19.0)
n = 16
19.8(13.2)
n = 361
0.040
 Deep hypothermic circulatory arrest used 377(67%) 16(80%) 361(66%) 0.273
 Need to reinstate cardiopulmonary bypass 40(8%) 4 (20%) 36(7%) 0.055
Post-operative day 1 variables
 Highest lactate (mmol/L) 5.1(2.7) 8.2(4.7) 5.0(2.6) 0.008
 Highest vasoactive-inotrope score 12.3(13.6) 36.6(36.2) 11.4(11.1) 0.005
 Highest epinephrine dose (μg/kg/min) 0.09(0.13) 0.21(0.26) 0.09(0.12) 0.049
 Lowest pH (0.1 units) 7.30(0.07) 7.26(0.07) 7.30(0.07) 0.017
 Lowest base deficit − 2.5(3.2) − 5.1(3.7) − 2.3(3.2) < 0.001
 Lowest PaO2 (mmHg) 53.3(20.6) 50(35.3) 53.4(20.0) 0.729
 Highest creatinine (μmol/L) 53.67(17) 63.3 (28) 53.3 (16) 0.127
 Open sternum from operating room 308(55%) 17(85%) 291(53%) 0.005
 Steroids started for blood pressure 108(19%) 6(30%) 102(19%) 0.243
 Dialysis 9(1.6%) 2(10.0%) 7(1.3%) 0.002
 Seizure at any peri-operative time 39(6.9%) 4(20.0%) 35(6.4%) 0.042
Outcomes
 Death by 30 days 12(2.1%) 7(35.0%) 5(0.09%) < 0.001
 Death by 2 years 75(13%) 11(55%) 64(12%) < 0.001
 Outcomes in survivors n = 474 n = 9 n = 465a  
 General Adaptive Composite score on the ABAS-II 89.8 (18.6) 69.7(13.0) 90.3(18.4) 0.001
 General Adaptive Composite score < 70 (2 SD below mean; population expected 2.27%) 72 (15%) 5 (56%) 68 (15%) 0.005
  1. Data are given as n (%), mean (standard deviation)
  2. ABAS Adaptive Behavior Assessment System
  3. at test for continuous variables and chi-square or exact Fisher test for categorical variables