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Table 1 Comparison for patient characteristics and treatments (n = 2495)

From: Treatment of patients with sepsis in a closed intensive care unit is associated with improved survival: a nationwide observational study in Japan

  All patients (n = 2495) Closed ICU (n = 1516) Open ICU (n = 979) p value
In-hospital surgical ICU 50 (2.0%) 50 (3.3%) 0 (0.0%) < 0.001*
In-hospital general ICU 1168 (46.8%) 644 (42.5%) 5234 (53.5%) < 0.001*
Emergency ICU 1277 (51.2%) 822 (54.2%) 455 (46.5%) < 0.001*
Number of beds (IQR†) 12 [8–18] 10 [6–18] 12 [10–20] < 0.001*
SOFA score (IQR†) 9 [7–12] 9 [7–13] 9 [6–12] 0.004*
APACHE II score (IQR†) 22 [17–29] 23 [18–29] 21 [16–28] < 0.001*
SIRS score (IQR†) 3 [2–4] 3 [2–4] 3 [2–4] 0.058
Age (IQR†, year old) 72 [62–80] 72 [62–80] 73 [63–81] 0.007*
Sex (male, %) 1490 (59.7%) 916 (60.4%) 574 (58.6%) 0.373
Body weight (IQR†, kg) 54.5 [46.3–64] 54.7 [46.5–65] 54.0 [46.0–63] 0.208
White blood cell count (IQR†, × 103) 11.2 [4.5–17.8] 11.00 [4.40–17.76] 11.66 [4.85–17.80] 0.199
Hemoglobin (IQR†, g/dl) 10.6 [9–12.4] 10.5 [8.9–12.4] 10.6 [9.1–12.5] 0.055
Platelet count (IQR†, × 103) 120 [64–191] 121 [64–194] 118 [64–186] 0.498
Prothrombin time international normalize ratio (IQR†) 1.34 [1.17–1.61] 1.35 [1.18–1.63] 1.32 [1.16–1.56] 0.057
Co-morbidities
 Liver failure (yes, %) 104 (4.2%) 68 (4.5%) 36 (3.7%) 0.324
 Respiratory failure (yes, %) 98 (3.9%) 64 (4.2%) 34 (3.5%) 0.347
 Cardiac failure (yes, %) 134 (5.4%) 82 (5.4%) 52 (5.3%) 0.916
 Renal failure (yes, %) 217 (8.7%) 114 (7.5%) 103 (10.5%) 0.009*
 Immunological disorder (yes, %) 381 (15.3%) 263 (17.3%) 118 (12.1%) < 0.001*
 Hematologic disorder
  Cirrhosis (yes, %) 97 (3.9%) 63 (4.2%) 34 (3.5%) 0.389
  Hematologic malignancy (yes, %) 84 (3.4%) 58 (3.8%) 26 (2.7%) 0.113
  Chemotherapy (yes, %) 114 (4.6%) 79 (5.2%) 35 (3.6%) 0.056
  Warfarin intake (yes, %) 113 (4.5%) 73 (4.8%) 40 (4.1%) 0.392
  Others (yes, %) 48 (1.9%) 33 (2.2%) 15 (1.5%) 0.252
 Positive blood culture 1111 (44.5%) 679 (44.8%) 432 (44.1%) 0.745
 Negative blood culture 1240 (49.7%) 778 (51.3%) 462 (47.2%) 0.044*
 No blood culture 144 (5.8%) 59 (3.9%) 85 (8.7%) < 0.001*
 Viral infection 22 (0.9%) 18 (1.2%) 4 (0.4%) 0.042*
 GNR infection 912 (36.6%) 528 (34.8%) 384 (39.2%) 0.026*
 GPC infection 586 (23.5%) 344 (22.7%) 242 (24.7%) 0.243
 Fungal infection 38 (1.5%) 27 (1.8%) 11 (1.1%) 0.190
 Mixed infection 339 (13.6%) 246 (16.2%) 93 (9.5%) < 0.001*
 Other infection 45 (1.8%) 33 (2.2%) 12 (1.2%) 0.081
 Unknown infection 553 (22.2%) 320 (21.1%) 233 (23.8%) 0.114
Red blood cell transfusion (IQR†, units) 0 [0–4] 0 [0–4] 0 [0–4] < 0.001*
Fresh frozen plasma transfusion (IQR†, units) 0 [0–4] 0 [0–5] 0 [0–4] 0.002*
Platelet concentration transfusion (IQR†, units) 0 [0–0] 0 [0–10] 0 [0–0] < 0.001*
Treatment for DIC (yes, %) 1074 (43.0%) 656 (43.3%) 418 (42.7%) 0.777
 Antithrombin III (yes, %) 726 (29.1%) 447 (29.5%) 279 (28.5%) 0.596
 rhsTM (yes, %) 636 (25.5%) 420 (27.7%) 216 (22.1%) 0.002*
 Nafamostat (yes, %) 880 (35.3%) 533 (35.2%) 347 (35.5%) 0.884
 Heparin (yes, %) 453 (18.2%) 247 (16.3%) 206 (21.0%) 0.003*
 Warfarin (yes, %) 39 (1.6%) 15 (1.0%) 24 (2.5%) 0.004*
 Antiplatelet (yes, %) 56 (2.2%) 37 (2.4%) 19 (1.9%) 0.411
 Others (yes, %) 15 (0.6%) 7 (0.5%) 8 (0.8%) 0.262
Specific treatment
 Immunoglobulin (yes, %) 743 (29.8%) 447 (29.5%) 296 (30.2%) 0.689
 Low dose steroid (yes, %) 600 (24.0%) 413 (27.2%) 187 (19.1%) < 0.001*
 Renal replacement therapy (yes, %) 664 (26.6%) 452 (29.8%) 212 (21.7%) < 0.001*
 Renal replacement therapy not for renal indication (yes, %) 165 (6.6%) 58 (3.8%) 107 (10.9%) < 0.001*
 Polymyxin B direct hemoperfusion (yes, %) 547 (21.9%) 316 (20.8%) 231 (23.6%) 0.105
 Plasma exchange (yes, %) 20 (0.8%) 9 (0.6%) 11 (1.1%) 0.147
 Veno-arterial ECMO (yes, %) 23 (0.9%) 20 (1.3%) 3 (0.3%) 0.010*
 Veno-venus ECMO (yes, %) 27 (1.1%) 26 (1.7%) 1 (0.1%) < 0.001*
 Intra-aortic balloon pumping (yes, %) 11 (0.4%) 7 (0.5%) 4 (0.4%) 0.845
 Mechanical ventilation support (yes, %) 1799 (72.1%) 1184 (78.1%) 615 (62.8%) < 0.001*
Survival discharge (yes, %) 1668 (66.9%) 1014 (66.9%) 654 (66.8%) 0.965
  1. IQR† median [25%, 75%] for continuous variables, ICU intensive care unit, SOFA score Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score, APACHE II score Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score, SIRS score systemic inflammatory response syndrome score, GNR gram-negative rods, GPC gram-positive coccus, DIC disseminated intravascular coagulation, rhsTM recombinant human soluble thrombomodulin, ECMO extracorporeal membrane oxygenation
  2. *p < 0.05