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Table 2 Outcomes in smokers, former smokers, and never smokers with severe sepsis or septic shock

From: The impact of smoking on patient outcomes in severe sepsis and septic shock

Outcomes Current smokers (N = 107) Non-smokers (N = 455) P value* Former smokers (N = 249) P value** Never smokers (N = 206) P value§
Mortalityn (%) 34 (32) 101 (22) 0.04 60 (24) 0.13 41 (20) 0.02
Hospital LOS—median days (IQR) 7 (4–17) 7 (4–12) 0.19 7 (4–12) 0.26 7 (4–12) 0.20
Hospital LOS in survivors 8 (4–18)
(N = 73)
7 (4–12)
(N = 354)
0.03 7 (4–12)
(N = 189)
0.05 7 (4–11)
(N = 165)
0.05
ICU LOS 5 (3–10)
(N = 75)
4 (2–11)
(N = 243)
0.36 5 (2–11)
(N = 135)
0.67 4 (2–10)
(N = 108)
0.20
ICU LOS survivors 6 (3–11)
(N = 47)
4 (2–10)
(N = 162)
0.06 4 (2–10)
(N = 84)
0.10 4 (2–10)
(N = 78)
0.07
Required ICU admission—n (%) 75 (70) 243 (53) < 0.01 135 (54) < 0.01 108 (52) < 0.01
Required vasopressors—n (%) 57 (53) 175 (39) < 0.01 104 (42) 0.05 71 (34) < 0.01
Vasopressor days—median (IQR) 3 (2–4)
(N = 57)
3 (2–5)
(N = 175)
0.97 3 (2–5.5)
(N = 104)
0.72 3 (2–5)
(N = 71)
0.68
Required mechanical ventilation—n (%) 62 (58) 133 (29) < 0.01 77 (31) < 0.01 56 (27) < 0.01
Ventilator days 5 (2–9)
(N = 62)
5 (2–9)
(N = 133)
0.99 6 (2–11)
(N = 77)
0.42 4 (2–8)
(N = 56)
0.32
Required dialysis—n (%) 10 (9) 42 (9) 0.97 27 (11) 0.67 15 (7) 0.52
Dialysis days 4 (2–6)
(N = 10)
4 (2–9)
(N = 42)
0.58 6 (3–13)
(N = 27)
0.30 3 (2–6)
(N = 15)
0.74
  1. LOS length of stay, ICU intensive care unit
  2. *P value refers to comparison between current smokers and non-smokers
  3. **P value refers to comparison between current smokers and former smokers
  4. §P value refers to comparison between current smokers and never smokers
  5. Includes death or discharge to hospice