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Table 1 Baseline characteristics stratified by smoking history

From: The impact of smoking on patient outcomes in severe sepsis and septic shock

Demographics All (N = 562) Current smokers (N = 107) Non-smokers (N = 455) P value*
(current vs. non)
Former smokers (N = 249) P value**
(current vs. former)
Never smokers (N = 206) P value§
(current vs. never)
Age—median years (IQR) 74 (61–84) 58 (50–69) 78 (66–85) < 0.0001 78 (69–85) < 0.0001 76.5 (61–85) < 0.0001
Male—n (%) 347 (62%) 69 (65) 278 (61) 0.52 166 (67) 0.69 112 (54) 0.09
BMI, median (IQR) 26 (23–31) 26 (23–32) 26 (23–31) 0.87 26 (23–31) 0.66 26 (22–31) 0.86
FEV1 mean (std) 1.76 (0.78) 2.11 (1.05) 1.65 (0.64) 0.048 1.64 (0.64) 0.049 1.67 (0.65) 0.09
FEV1 % pred mean (std) 68.4 (24.5) 66.6 (23.3) 68.9 (24.9) 0.69 69.3 (24.2) 0.65 67.9 (27.5) 0.87
FVC mean (std) 2.54 (0.97) 3.07 (1.13) 2.37 (0.85) < 0.01 2.39 (0.83) 0.004 2.32 (0.93) 0.03
FVC % pred mean (std) 73.2 (20.9) 75.9 (20.5) 72.3 (21.0) 0.46 73.0 (19.0) 0.54 70.2 (26.6) 0.44
FEV1/FVC mean (std) 68.6 (15.9) 67.3 (16.0) 69.0 (15.9) 0.65 69.1 (14.6) 0.64 68.7 (19.8) 0.79
Hospital acquired sepsis# 52 (9.3%) 15 (14%) 37 (8.1%) 0.06 21 (8.4%) 0.11 16 (7.8%) 0.08
Charlson Score, median (IQR) 5 (4–7) 4 (2–5) 5 (4–7) < 0.0001 6 (4–7) < 0.0001 5 (3–7) 0.0005
MI, n (%) 151 (27) 19 (18) 132 (29) 0.002 93 (37) 0.0003 39 (19) 0.80
CHF, n (%) 137 (24) 14 (13) 123 (27) 0.003 75 (30) 0.0007 48 (23) 0.03
CVA, n (%) 75 (13) 6 (6) 69 (15) < 0.01 38 (15) 0.01 31 (15) 0.01
Dementia, n (%) 64 (11) 3 (3) 61 (13) < 0.01 34 (14) 0.002 27 (13) 0.003
COPD, n (%) 110 (20) 35 (33) 75 (17) < 0.01 68 (27) 0.30 7 (3) < 0.0001
DM, n (%) 161 (29) 27 (25) 134 (30) 0.39 72 (29) 0.48 62 (30) 0.37
Cirrhosis, n (%) 56 (10) 24 (22) 32 (7) < 0.01 15 (6) < 0.0001 17 (8) 0.0004
CKD, n (%) 55 (10) 5 (5) 50 (11) 0.05 33 (13)   17 (8)  
Source of infection
 Pneumonia, n (%) 241 (43) 53 (50) 188 (41) 0.12 116 (47) 0.61 72 (35) 0.01
 Genitourinary 154 (27) 21 (20) 133 (29) 0.05 66 (27) 0.17 67 (32) 0.02
 Abdominal 108 (19) 31 (29) 77 (17) < 0.01 42 (17) 0.01 35 (17) 0.01
 Soft tissue 39 (7) 2 (2) 37 (8) 0.02 23 (9) 0.01 14 (7) 0.06
 CNS 3 (1) 1 (1) 2 (0.4) 0.53 0 (0) 0.13 2 (1) 0.98
 Cardiovascular 9 (2) 2 (2) 7 (2) 0.81 2 (1) 0.38 5 (2) 0.75
 Blood stream 73 (13) 12 (11) 61 (13) 0.54 28 (11) 0.99 33 (16) 0.25
 CVC 10 (2) 0 (0) 10 (2) 0.12 4 (2) 0.19 6 (3) 0.07
 Other 0 0 0 0 0
 Unknown 16 (3) 2 (2) 14 (3) 0.50 6 (2) 0.75 8 (4) 0.34
Medical, n (%) 481 (86) 84 (79) 397 (87) 0.02 218 (88) 0.03 179 (87) 0.05
Surgical 81 (13) 23 (22) 58 (13)   31 (13)   27 (13)  
Alcohol abuse, n (%) 64 (11) 37 (35) 27 (6) < 0.01 19 (8) < 0.0001 8 (4) < 0.0001
Severe sepsis, n (%) 319 (57) 47 (44) 272 (60) < 0.01 144 (58) 0.02 128 (62) 0.002
Septic shock, n (%) 243 (43) 60 (56) 183 (40)   105 (42)   78 (38)  
Lactate—median (IQR) 2.1 (1.3–3.4) 2.1 (1.5–3.1) 2.05 (1.2–3.5) 0.53 2.0 (1.2–3.2) 0.53 2.1 (1.2–3.7) 0.61
SOFA score median (IQR) 6 (3–9) 7 (4–12) 5 (3–9) < 0.01 5 (3–9) 0.001 5 (3–8) < 0.0001
Respiratory
median (IQR)
1 (0–2) 2 (0–3) 1 (0–2) < 0.001 1 (0–3) 0.015 0 (0–2) < 0.0001
72 h fluid balance—median L (IQR) 2.1 (0.2–4.35) 2.3 (0.01–5.9) 2.1 (0.26–4.1) 0.32 2.1 (0.01–4.1) 0.18 2.2 (0.5–4.1) 0.67
Stress steroids given—n (%) 38 (7) 9 (8) 29 (6) 0.45 17 (7) 0.60 12 (6) 0.38
Time to appropriate antibiotics after hypotension—minutes, median (IQR) 60 (− 60–159) 35 (− 117–120) 61 (− 60–165) 0.23 60 (− 76–165) 0.44 68.5 (− 22–170) 0.14
Appropriate empiric antibiotics given based on culture data
 Yes, n (%) 248 (44) 53(50) 195/454 (43) 0.17 107 (43) 0.17 88/205 (43) 0.26
 No, n (%) 50 (9) 5(5) 45/454 (10)   26 (10)   19/205 (9)  
 Unknown, n (%) 263 (47) 49(46) 214/454 (47)   116 (47)   98/205 (48)  
  1. Abbreviations: IQR interquartile range, BMI body mass index, std. standard deviation, FEV1 forced expiratory volume in 1 s, FVC forced vital capacity, MI myocardial infarction, CHF congestive heart failure, CVA cerebrovascular accident, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, DM diabetes mellitus, CKD chronic kidney disease, CNS central nervous system, CVC central venous catheter, SOFA sequential organ failure assessment
  2. *P value refers to comparison between current smokers and non-smokers
  3. **P value refers to comparison between current smokers and former smokers
  4. §P value refers to comparison between current smokers and never smokers
  5. There were only 98/562 (17.4%) patients that had available pulmonary function testing recorded prior to data collection. Therefore, the N in this section is unique: current smokers N = 24, former smoker N = 55, never smoker N = 19. Additionally, the reported spirometry is pre-bronchodilator
  6. #Individuals who acquired sepsis more than 48 h following hospital admission
  7. Independent evaluation of respiration as part of SOFA score. 0 = PaO2/FiO2 ratio > 400, 1 = PaO2/FiO2 301–400 or SaO2/FiO2 221–301, 2 = PaO2/FiO2 201–300 or SaO2/FiO2 142–220, 3 = PaO2/FiO2 101–200 or SaO2/FiO2 67–141, 4 = PaO2/FiO2 < 100 or SaO2/FiO2 67