Skip to main content

Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the study cohort

From: The prognostic performance of qSOFA for community-acquired pneumonia

  In-hospital mortality ICU admission
Variables All encounters Non-survivors Survivors P value ICU admission Non-ICU P value
Number of patients 1045 64 (6.1) 981 (93.9)   83 (7.9) 962 (92.1)  
Age, years 77 (68–83) 80 (74–85) 76 (68–83) 0.004 74 (66–82) 77 (68–84) 0.046
Male sex, % 746 (71.4) 51 (79.7) 697 (70.8) 0.15 64 (77.1) 682 (70.9) 0.26
Comorbidities, %
 COPD 266 (25.5) 26 (40.6) 240 (24.5) 0.007 24 (28.9) 242 (25.2) 0.51
 Interstitial pneumonia 73 (7.0) 6 (9.4) 67 (6.8) 0.44 3 (3.6) 70 (7.3) 0.27
 Old pulmonary tuberculosis 37 (3.5) 6 (9.4) 31 (3.2) 0.022 4 (4.8) 33 (3.4) 0.53
 Asthma 144 (13.8) 5 (7.8) 139 (14.2) 0.19 10 (12.0) 134 (14.0) 0.74
 Diabetes mellitus 203 (19.5) 14 (21.9) 189 (19.3) 0.63 22 (26.5) 181 (18.9) 0.11
 Chronic liver disease 54 (5.2) 3 (4.7) 51 (5.2) 1.00 6 (7.2) 48 (5.0) 0.43
 Congestive heart failure 323 (30.9) 22 (34.4) 301 (30.7) 0.58 29 (34.9) 294 (30.6) 0.46
 Chronic kidney disease 94 (9.0) 5 (7.8) 89 (9.1) 1.00 5 (6.0) 89 (9.3) 0.43
 Cerebrovascular disease 150 (14.3) 8 (12.5) 142 (14.5) 0.85 7 (8.4) 143 (14.9) 0.14
 Malignancy 91 (8.7) 8 (12.5) 83 (8.5) 0.25 10 (12.0) 81 (8.4) 0.31
Vital signs
 Temperature, °C 37.8 (37.0–38.6) 37.1 (36.8–38.0) 38 (37.0–38.6) 0.001 38 (36.8–38.4) 38 (37.0–38.6) 0.07
 Systolic blood pressure, mmHg 128 (111–148) 123 (105–143) 128(112–148) 0.21 120 (95–150) 128 (113–148) 0.032
 Mean arterial pressure, mmHg 90 (78–103) 84 (76–100) 90 (78–103) 0.15 84 (69–103) 90 (78–103) 0.06
 Respiratory rate, / min. 22 (20–26) 25 (20–30) 22 (19–26) < 0.001 26 (23–30) 22 (19–25) < 0.001
 Heart rate, / min. 98 (84–111) 100 (84–115) 98 (84–111) 0.46 103 (89–124) 98 (84–110) 0.002
 Mental confusion, % 134 (12.8) 24 (37.5) 110 (11.2) < 0.001 32 (38.6) 102 (10.6) < 0.001
Laboratory results
 Total protein, g/dl 6.6 (6.1–7.0) 6.1 (5.8–6.6) 6.6 (6.2–7.0) < 0.001 6.1 (5.8–6.6) 6.6 (6.2–7.0) < 0.001
 Albumin, g/dl 3.2 (2.8–3.6) 2.8 (2.4–3.0) 3.3 (2.8–3.6) < 0.001 2.9 (2.4–3.3) 3.2 (2.8–3.6) < 0.001
 AST, U/L 26 (20–39) 30 (22–44) 26 (19–39) 0.017 35 (22–58) 25 (19–37) < 0.001
 ALT, U/L 17 (12–28) 19 (11–33) 17 (12–27) 0.58 21 (14–36) 17 (12–27) 0.003
 LDH, U/L 239 (195–293) 260 (211–342) 237 (195–290) 0.06 298 (240–383) 234 (193–284) < 0.001
 BUN, mg/dl 19 (14–27) 28 (20–38) 19 (14–26) < 0.001 26 (18–41) 19 (14–25) < 0.001
 Na, mmol/L 137 (135–139) 137 (134–140) 137 (135–139) 0.90 137 (134–139) 137 (135–139) 0.35
 Hgb, g/dl 12.4 (11.0–13.6) 12.2 (10.2–13.5) 12 (11.0–13.6) 0.33 13 (11.2–14.3) 12 (11.0–13.6) 0.049
 WBC, × 109/L 11.2 (8.1–15.2) 12.1 (8.2–15.9) 11 (8.1–15.2) 0.38 11 (7.3–15.9) 11 (8.1–15.1) 0.53
 Platelets, × 109/L 20.2 (15.0–26.6) 21.4 (16.4–27.6) 20 (14.9–26.5) 0.33 18 (13.3–23.7) 20 (15.3–26.9) 0.005
 C-reactive protein, mg/dl 11.7 (5.5–18.8) 15.6 (11.4–24.0) 11.3 (5.2–18.3) < 0.001 16.9 (9.3–27.9) 11.3 (5.2–17.8) < 0.001
 PCT, ng/mL 0.47 (0.14–2.22) 1.24 (0.31–6.79) 0.5 (0.13–2.11) 0.003 4.5 (0.80–17.56) 0.4 (0.13–1.84) < 0.001
 PaO2/FIO2 ratio, mmHg 265 (202–307) 178 (86–244) 267 (210–310) < 0.001 116 (65–216) 271 (217–310) < 0.001
 PaCO2, Torr 35.7 (32.0–40.2) 38.9 (31.9–52.3) 36 (32.0–40.0) 0.021 35 (30.7–47.4) 36 (32.0–40.0) 0.48
 pH 7.45 (7.41–7.48) 7.4 (7.31–7.46) 7.5 (7.41–7.48) < 0.001 7.4 (7.30–7.45) 7.5 (7.42–7.48) < 0.001
Illness severity
 qSOFA 1 (0–1) 1 (1–2) 1 (0–1) < 0.001 1 (1–2) 1 (0–1) < 0.001
 CURB-65 2 (1–2) 3 (2–3) 2 (1–2) < 0.001 3 (2–4) 2 (1–2) < 0.001
 PSI points 97 (81–120) 130 (107–156) 96 (80–118) < 0.001 128 (105–159) 96 (80–117) < 0.001
 PSI class IV (III–IV) IV (IV–V) IV (III–IV) < 0.001 IV (IV–V) IV (III–IV) < 0.001
 SIRS 2 (1–3) 2 (1–3) 2 (1–3) 0.53 3 (2–3) 2 (1–3) 0.002
Outcomes
 Vasopressors, % 52 (5.0) 13 (20.3) 39 (4.0) < 0.001 51 (61.4) 1 (0.1) < 0.001
 Respirator (including NPPV), % 89 (8.5) 26 (40.6) 63 (6.4) < 0.001 69 (83.1) 20 (2.1) < 0.001
 ICU admission, % 83 (7.9) 22 (34.4) 61 (6.2) < 0.001  
 Hospital length of stay, days 11 (8–18) 11 (5–25) 11 (8–18) 0.21 21 (12–33) 11 (7–17) < 0.001
 28-day mortality, % 51 (4.9) 51 (79.7) 0 (0.0) < 0.001 17 (20.5) 34 (3.5) < 0.001
 Hospital mortality, % 64 (6.1)   22 (26.5) 42 (4.4) < 0.001
  1. Data were expressed as a median (IQR) or number (%)
  2. Abbreviations: ALT alanine aminotransferase, AST aspartate transaminase, BUN blood urea nitrogen, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, CURB-65 confusion, urea, respiratory rate, blood pressure and age, Hgb hemoglobin, ICU intensive care unit, IQR interquartile range, LDH lactate dehydrogenase, Na sodium, PSI pneumonia severity index, qSOFA quick sequential (Sepsis-related) organ failure assessment, SIRS systemic inflammatory response syndrome, WBC white blood cell