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Table 2 Approach sites and complications of ECMO

From: Comparison of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation outcome for influenza-associated acute respiratory failure in Japan between 2009 and 2016

Year 2009 2016 p value
Approach site of drainage cannula    0.021
 Femoral vein 14 (100) 8 (57)  
 Right jugular vein 0 (0) 6 (43)  
Approach site of return cannula    0.0498
 Femoral vein 2 (14) 6 (43)  
 Right jugular vein 12 (86) 6 (43)  
 Femoral artery 0 (0) 2 (14)  
Adverse events directly related to the ECMO circuit
 Oxygenator failure 7 (50) 6 (43) > 0.99
 Blood clots    
  Oxygenator 3 (21) 8 (57) 0.12
  Other circuit 1 (7) 2 (14) > 0.99
 Cannula-related problems 3 (21) 3 (21) > 0.99
 Pump head complications 1 (7) 1 (7) > 0.99
Adverse events indirectly related to the ECMO circuit
 Massive bleeding    
  Surgical site 4 (29) 3 (21) > 0.99
  Upper digestive tract 4 (29) 2 (14) 0.65
  Cannulation site 2 (14) 2 (14) > 0.99
  Pulmonary hemorrhage 1 (7) 0 (0) > 0.99
 Hemolysis 2 (14) 1 (7) > 0.99
 Disseminated intravascular coagulation 10 (71) 5 (36) 0.13
 Venous thrombus 2 (14) 4 (21) 0.50
  1. ECMO extracorporeal membrane oxygenation