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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the patients enrolled

From: Comparison of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation outcome for influenza-associated acute respiratory failure in Japan between 2009 and 2016

Year 2009 2016 p value
n 14 14  
Age 54 (43–60) 52 (43–63) 0.70
Sex (male/female) 12/2 12/2 > 0.99
Weight (kg) 70 (64–80) 67 (59–78) 0.50
BMI NA 23 (22–27)  
Body temperature (°C)
 On admission 38.8 (37.1–39.1) 37.5 (36.7–38.2) 0.11
 Maximum 39.4 (38.7–39.8) 38.2 (37.7–39.7) 0.21
APACHE II score 17 (12–25) 20 (5–37) 0.30
Predicted death rate (%) 24.9 (14.6–54.1) 38.0 (34.5–47.8) 0.24
Maximum SOFA score 16 (12–19) 11 (9–13) 0.030
Underlying condition
 Immunosuppression 0 (0) 3 (21) 0.22
 Drug abuse 1 (7) 0 (0) > 0.99
 Pregnancy 1 (7) 0 (0) > 0.99
 COPD 0 (0) 2 (14) 0.46
 Chronic renal failure 0 (0) 2 (14) 0.46
Vaccination 1 (7) 1 (7) > 0.99
Influenza antigen/PCR (A/B) 14 / 0 14 / 0 > 0.99
Complications
 Acute renal failure 7 (50) 9 (64) 0.70
 Acute hepatic failure 4 (29) 1 (7) 0.32
 Culture-confirmed infection 5 (36) 10 (71) 0.13
 Shock 4 (29) 5 (36) > 0.99
 Cardiac failure 0 (0) 0 (0) > 0.99
 Respiratory failure 1 (7) 2 (14) > 0.99
 Neurological impairment 0 (0) 0 (0) > 0.99
Medical treatment
 Peramivir 5 (36) 14 (100) 0.001
 Oseltamivir 6 (43) 0 (0) 0.021
 Zanamivir 1 (7) 1 (7) > 0.99
 Laninamivir 0 (0) 0 (0) > 0.99
 Antibiotics 13 (93) 13 (93) > 0.99
 gamma-globulin 5 (36) 3 (21) 0.68
 Corticosteroid    
  High-dose methylprednisolone 9 (64) 6 (43) 0.45
  Low dose 7 (50) 6 (43) > 0.99
 Sivelestat 5 (36) 1 (7) 0.17
 Vasoactive drugs 13 (93) 11 (79) 0.24
Rescue and adjunctive therapies
 Prone 3 (21) 5 (36) 0.68
 Nitric oxide 1 (7) 2 (14) > 0.99
 CRRT 7 (50) 7 (50) > 0.99
 HFOV 0 (0) 0 (0) > 0.99
 APRV 13 (93) 5 (36) 0.006
 NPPV 3 (21) 4 (29) > 0.99
Respiratory impairment before starting ECMO
 PaO2/FIO2 before starting ventilation 55 (46–65) 80 (64–80) 0.009
 PaO2/FIO2 at starting ventilation 78 (58–86) 96 (72–150) 0.09
 Lowest PaO2/FIO2 during ventilation 50 (41–52) 70 (58–75) 0.002
 PEEP at starting ventilation (cmH2O) 10 (10–11) 11 (8–14) 0.48
 Highest PEEP during ventilation (cmH2O) 24 (17–30) 15 (14–19) 0.015
 PIP at starting ventilation (cmH2O) 25 (21–29) 21 (18–27) 0.17
 Highest PIP during ventilation (cmH2O) 30 (30–34) 28 (25–30) 0.10
 OI at starting ventilation NA 16 (3–21)  
 Highest OI during ventilation NA 20 (8–27)  
  1. Data are expressed as median (interquartile) or number (%)
  2. BMI body mass index, APACHE acute physiology and chronic health evaluation, SOFA sequential organ failure assessment, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, PCR polymerase chain reaction, DIC disseminated intravascular coagulation; CRRT continuous renal replacement therapy, HFOV high-frequency oscillatory ventilation, APRV airway pressure release ventilation, NPPV non-invasive positive pressure ventilation, ECMO, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, PaO2/FIO2 pressure of arterial oxygen/fraction of inspiratory oxygen ratio, PEEP positive end-expiratory pressure, PIP peak inspiratory pressure, OI oxygenation index, ICU intensive care unit, NA not available