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Table 1 Summary of targeted temperature management studies

From: Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: intensive care for improving neurological outcome

Article Design Patient Intervention or exposure Comparison Main results
Muroi C 2008 [39] Single-center, prospective cohort study SAH patients with a ventricular catheter for cerebrospinal fluid drainage (1) 33 °C with an endovascular cooling device
(2) Barbiturate coma
N = 7
No detail described
N = 8
There was no significant difference in neurological outcome (GOS > 3) at 1 year (42.9 vs. 50.0%).
Anei R 2010 [40] Single-center
Before–after study
Poor-grade SAH patients (WFNS scale > 3) (1) Induction within 24 h after the hemorrhage
(2) 34 °C for 48 h with an cooling blanket
(3) Rewarming at the rate of 1 °C/24 h
N = 16
No detail described
N = 19
There was no significant difference in neurological outcome at 3 months.
Badjatia N 2010 [41] Matched controlled analysis from single-center, prospective cohort SAH patients with antipyretic-resistant fever 37 °C for 14 days with a surface cooling device
N = 40
Oral acetaminophen with or without use of a water-circulating blanket
N = 80
In multivariate analysis, TTM was associated with better neurological outcome at 12 months (79 vs. 54%).
Kuramatsu JB 2015 [42] Matched controlled analysis from single-center, prospective cohort Poor-grade SAH patients (Hunt and Hess grade > 3 and WFNS scale > 3) (1) Induction within 48 h after the hemorrhage
(2) 35 °C for 7 days with an endovascular cooling device
(3) Rewarming at the rate of 0.5 °C/24 h
N = 12
Intravenous paracetamol
N = 24
Patients in TTM groups had a significantly lower incidence of DCI (50.0 vs. 84.5%) and a tendency to have better functional outcome (mRS < 3) at 6 months (66.7 vs. 33.3%).
Choi W 2017 [43] Single-center, randomized control trial Poor-grade SAH patients (Hunt and Hess grade > 3 and modified Fisher scale > 2) (1) Induction as soon as possible after ruptured aneurysmal treatment
(2) 34.5 °C for 48 h with an endovascular cooling device or a surface cooling device
(3) rewarming at the rate of 1 °C/24 h to 36.5 °C
N = 11
No detail described
N = 11
There were no significant differences in the incidences of DCI (36.3 vs. 45.6%) and favorable neurological outcome (mRS < 3) at 3 months between two groups (27.3 vs. 9.1%).
  1. SAH subarachnoid hemorrhage, TTM targeted temperature management, WFNS World Federation of Neurosurgical Society, DCI delayed cerebral ischemia, mRS modified Ranking scale score, GOS Glasgow outcome scale