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Table 1 Descriptive characteristics of chronically critically ill (CCI) patients (n = 113) and the subsamples of patients with high (n = 61) vs. low fatigue (n = 52) at 3 months (t2) following the discharge from ICU at acute care hospital

From: Self-reported fatigue following intensive care of chronically critically ill patients: a prospective cohort study

Characteristic Patients (n = 113) High fatigue (n = 61)a Low fatigue (n = 52)a U/χ2 (p)b
Sociodemographic variables
 Age, years median (IQR) 61.1 (55.7–65.6) 61.5 (56.3–65.6) 58.7 (54.6–65.5) 1351.000 (.176)c
 Gender, n (%)
  Male 82 (72.6) 45 (73.8) 37 (71.2)  
  Female 31 (27.4) 16 (26.2) 15 (28.8) .097 (.756)d
 Family status, n (%)
  Single 10 (8.8) 5 (8.2) 5 (9.6)  
  Married/cohabited 78 (69.0) 48 (78.7) 30 (57.7)  
  Divorced/living apart 16 (14.2) 3 (4.9) 13 (25.0)  
  Widowed 9 (8.0) 5 (8.2) 4 (7.7) 10.594 (.032*)d
 Partnership
  Yes 78 (69.0) 48 (78.7) 30 (57.5)  
  No 35 (31.0) 13 (21.3) 22 (42.3) 5.788 (.016*)d
 Education, n (%)e
  < 10 years 35 (31.0) 17 (27.9) 33 (63.5)  
  ≥ 10 years 72 (63.7) 39 (63.9) 18 (34.6) .296 (.587)d
Clinical variables
 Sepsis, n (%)
  No sepsis 36 (31.9) 18 (29.5) 18 (34.6)  
  Sepsis 42 (37.2) 26 (42.6) 16 (30.8)  
  Severe sepsis or septic shock 35 (31.0) 17 (27.9) 18 (34.6) 1.704 (.427)d
 Number of sepsis episodes, median (IQR) 1.0 (0.0–1.0) 1.0 (0.0–1.0) 1.0 (0.0–1.0) 1512.500 (.911)d
 Site of infection, n (%)
  Respiratory 56 (49.6) 32 (52.5) 24 (46.2) .446 (.504)d
  Urinary/genitals 12 (10.6) 5 (8.2) 7 (13.5) .820 (.365)d
  Abdominal 10 (8.8) 4 (6.6) 6 (11.5) .863 (.509)f
  Bones/soft tissue 6 (5.3) 4 (6.6) 2 (3.8) .410 (.685)f
  Wound infection 2 (1.8) 1 (1.6) 1 (1.9) .013 (1.000)f
  Heart 1 (.9) 1 (1.6) 0 (0.0) .860 (1.000)f
  Multiple 13 (11.5) 5 (8.2) 8 (15.4) 1.425 (.233)d
  Othersg 8 (7.1) 2 (3.3) 6 (11.5) 2.911 (.140)f
  Unknown 4 (3.5) 2 (3.3) 2 (3.8) .026 (1.000)f
 Barthel index, median (IQR)
  At admission at post-acute ICU − 200.0 (− 225.0–125.0) − 185.0 (− 225.0–100.0) − 200.0 (− 225–128.8) 1538.500 (.781)c
  At discharge from post-acute ICU − 35.0 (− 82.5–7.5) − 25.0 (− 80.0–35.0) − 40.0 (− 85.0–0.0) 1319.500 (.124)c
  At discharge from rehabilitation hospital 65.0 (35.0–85.0) 65.0 (0.0–80.0) 75.0 (60.0–88.8) 1226.500 (.038*)c
  ICU stay, days median (IQR) 66.0 (49.0–93.5) 69.0 (46.0–87.0) 62.0 (49.0–111.5) 1585.000 (.977)c
  Mechanical ventilation, days median (IQR) 47.0 (33.0–70.0) 45.0 (30.0–71.5) 50.5 (33.5–69.8) 1405.500 (.298)c
  Number of medical comorbidities, median (IQR) 9.0 (7.0–12.0) 10.0 (8.0–13.0) 8.0 (6.3–11.0) 1098.000 (.005**)c
Psychological variables at (post-acute) ICU
 Perceived fear of dying at ICUh, median (IQR) 1.0 (1.0–6.0) 2.0 (1.0–6.0) 1.0 (1.0–5.0) 1375.500 (.321)c
 Perceived social support according to MSPSSh, median (IQR) 6.3 (5.4–6.9) 6.3 (5.4–6.9) 6.3 (5.8–7.0) 1448.500 (.425)c
 Diagnosis of major depression according to SCID Ih, n (%) 9 (8.0) 8 (13.1) 1 (1.9) 5.023 (.035*)f
 Diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) according to SCID I, n (%) 18 (15.9) 13 (21.3) 5 (9.6) 3.137 (.077)d
Prior psychiatric history
 History of harmful alcohol consumption, n (%) 22 (19.5) 12 (19.7) 10 (19.2) .003 (.953)d
 History of anxiety disorders, n (%) 8 (7.1) 5 (8.2) 3 (5.8) .251 (.724)f
 History of depressive disorders, n (%) 23 (20.4) 11 (18.0) 12 (23.1) .441 (.507)d
 History of psychological disorder, n (%) 70 (61.9) 34 (55.7) 36 (69.2) 2.168 (.141)d
  1. IQR interquartile range, MSPSS Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, PTSD posttraumatic stress disorder, SCID I Structured Clinical Interview according to DSM IV
  2. *p ≤ .05, **p ≤ .01
  3. aSubsamples were generated using the cutoff score 53+ suggested by Kuhnt et al. [32]
  4. bStatistical value and p value refer to the comparison between the subsamples of patients with high vs. low fatigue
  5. cp value from Mann-Whitney U test
  6. dp value from chi-squared test
  7. en = 6 missing values; high fatigue: n = 5, low fatigue: n = 1
  8. fp value from Fisher’s exact test
  9. gn = 1 brain, n = 5 central venous catheter, n = 1 port system, n = 1 urinary catheter; high fatigue: n = 1 brain, n = 1 central venous catheter, low fatigue: n = 1 port system, n = 1 urinary catheter, n = 4 central venous catheter
  10. hn = 2 missing values