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Table 3 Clinical and biochemical effects of moderate to severe Mg deficiency and hypomagnesemia

From: Hypomagnesemia in critically ill patients

Biochemical
 Hypokalemia
 Renal K wasting
 Decreased intracellular K
 Hypocalcemia
 Impaired parathyroid hormone secretion
 Renal and skeletal resistance to parathyroid hormone
 Resistance to vitamin D
Neuromuscular
 Tetany
 Spontaneous carpal-pedal spasm
 Seizures
 Vertigo, ataxia, nystagmus, athetoid, and choreiform movements
 Muscular weakness, tremor, fasciculation, and wasting
 Psychiatric: depression, psychosis
Cardiovascular
 Dysrhythmias
 Ventricular tachycardia (torsade de pointes)
 Atrial fibrillation
 Supraventricular tachycardia
 Hypertension
 Vasospasm
 Electrocardiographic changes
  Prolonged QT interval
  Prolonged PR interval
  Wide QRS
  Peaked T waves
  ST depression
Others
 Acute myocardial infarction
 Acute cerebral ischemia
 Asthma exacerbation
 Preeclampsia
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