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Table 2 Comparability of the groups after matching

From: Metformin therapy and postoperative atrial fibrillation in diabetic patients after cardiac surgery

Variable Metformin (n = 114) Non-metformin (n = 114) Standardized differences
Demographics
 Age, years (SD) 66.0 (9.2) 66.0 (9.7) 0
 Sex (male) 83 (72.8%) 84 (73.7%) − 0.02
 Race (white) 113 (99.1%) 114 (100.0%) − 0.13
 BMI, kg/m2 (SD) 32.73 (6.8) 32.3 (6.3) 0.07
 Alcohol use ≥ 2 drinks per week 7 (6.1%) 4 (3.5%) 0.12
Medical Characteristics
 Hypertension 105 (92.1%) 105 (92.1%) 0
 Dyslipidemia 107 (93.9%) 101 (88.6%) 0.19
 Lung disease 29 (25.4%) 32 (28.1%) − 0.06
 Peripheral artery disease 11 (9.7%) 11 (9.7%) 0
 Prior heart failure 12 (10.5%) 10 (8.8%) 0.06
 Prior MI 40 (35.1%) 35 (30.7%) 0.09
 CKD (eGFR < 60 mL/min) 49 (43.0%) 52 (45.6%) − 0.05
 HbA1C ≥ 9% 16 (14.0%) 17 (14.9%) − 0.02
 Mitral valve disease/stenosis 55 (48.3%) 51(44.7%) 0.07
Preoperative medications use
 ACE or ARB (within 48 h) 55 (48.3%) 54 (47.4%) 0.02
 ASA (within 5 days) 98 (89.0%) 101 (88.6%) 0.01
 Other anti-platelets 5 (4.4%) 9 (7.9%) − 0.14
 Lipid lowering agents (within 24 h) 103 (90.4%) 101 (88.6%)  
 Steroids (within 24 h) 1 (0.9%) 2 (1.8%) 0.06
 Vitamin C 21 (18.4%) 21 (18.4%) 0
 Vitamin E 2 (1.8%) 1(0.9%) 0.08
 Amiodarone 5 (4.4%) 7 (6.1%) − 0.07
 Magnesium sulfate (inpatient) 3 (2.6%) 3 (2.6%) 0
Postoperative medications use
 ACE or ARB 60 (52.6%) 52 (45.6%) 0.14
 ASA 110 (96.5%) 110 (96.5%) 0
 Other anti-platelets 23 (20.2%) 23 (20.2%) 0
 Beta blocker 104 (91.2%) 106 (93.0%) − 0.07
Cardiac characteristics
 Active MI (STEMI) 1 (0.9%) 1 (0.9%) 0
 CABG 82 (71.9%) 82 (71.9%) 0
 Valve surgery 53 (46.5%) 54 (47.4%) − 0.02
 Cross clamp time ≥ 120 19 (16.7%) 13 (11.4%) 0.15
 Explant position, aortic 1 (0.9%) 1 (0.9%) 0
 Intra-aortic balloon pump 12 (10.5%) 12 (10.5%) 0
 Surgery status
  Emergent 2 (1.8%) 2 (1.8%) 0
  Urgent 35 (30.7%) 32 (28.1%) 0.06
  Elective 77 (67.5%) 80 (70.2%) − 0.06
 Resuscitation 1 (0.9%) 1 (0.9%) 0