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Table 1 Comparability of the groups before matching

From: Metformin therapy and postoperative atrial fibrillation in diabetic patients after cardiac surgery

Variable Metformin prior to admission (n = 635) Non-metformin prior to admission (n = 648) p value
Demographics
 Age, years, mean (SD) 65.1 (9.8) 66.6 (10.1) 0.0064
 Sex (male) 448 (70.6%) 423 (65.3%) 0.0431
 Race (white) 628 (98.9%) 633 (97.7%) 0.0944
 BMI, kg/m2, mean (SD) 32.37 (6.0) 32.13 (6.9) 0.4981
 Alcohol use ≥ 2 drinks per week 36 (8.8%) N = 409 27 (6.8%) N = 397 0.2900
Medical characteristics
 Hypertension 571 (89.9%) 599 (92.4%) 0.1117
 Dyslipidemia 564 (89.0%) 572 (88.3%) 0.6985
 Lung disease 133 (20.94%) 154 (23.8%) 0.2255
 Peripheral artery disease 67 (10.6%) 78 (12.1%) 0.4007
 Prior heart failure 28 (7.6%) N = 368 48 (13.6%) N = 352 0.0085
 Prior MI 195 (33.1%) N = 590 234 (39.1%) N = 599 0.0308
 CKD (eGFR < 60 mL/min) 243 (38.3%) 371 (57.3%) < 0.0001
 HbA1C ≥ 9% 104 (18.4%) N = 566 79 (13.0%) N = 607 0.0115
 Mitral valve disease/stenosis 142 (22.5%) 169 (26.4%) 0.1127
Preoperative medications use
 ACE or ARB (within 48 h) 193 (47.0%) N = 411 155 (38.9%) N = 399 0.0197
 ASA (within 5 days) 555 (87.4%) 558 (86.1%) 0.4955
 Other anti-platelets 62 (9.8%) 58 (9.0%) 0.6170
 Beta blocker (within 24 h) 533 (83.9%) 561 (86.6%) 0.1827
 Lipid lowering agents (within 24 h) 572 (90.1%) 568 (87.7%) 0.1677
 Steroids (within 24 h) 19 (3.0%) 25 (3.9%) 0.3942
 Vitamin C 117 (18.4%) 108 (16.7%) 0.4076
 Vitamin E 19 (3.0%) 16 (2.5%) 0.5653
 Amiodarone 47 (7.4%) 52 (8.0%) 0.6758
 Magnesium sulfate (inpatient) 27 (4.3%) 21 (3.2%) 0.3399
Postoperative Medications Use
 ACE or ARB 254 (41.1%) 252 (39.8%) 0.6258
 ASA 593 (96.0%) 609 (96.1%) 0.9265
 Other anti-platelets 110 (17.8%) 171 (27.0%) 0.0001
 Beta blocker 583 (94.3%) 583 (92.0%) 0.0959
Cardiac characteristics
 Active MI (STEMI) 15 (2.4%) 16 (2.5%) 0.9008
 CABG 492 (77.5%) 506 (78.1%) 0.7940
 Valve surgery 227(35.8%) 243 (37.5%) 0.5149
 Cross clamp time ≥ 120 72 (18.7%) N = 386 101 (24.4%) N = 414 0.0486
 Explant position, aortic 1 (0.2%) 2 (0.3%) 0.5751
 Intra-aortic balloon pump 77 (12.1%) 95 (14.7%) 0.1828
 Surgery status    0.2790
  Emergent 14 (2.2%) 20 (3.1%)  
  Urgent 257 (40.5%) 238 (36.7%)  
  Elective 364 (57.3%) 390 (60.2%)  
 Resuscitation 4 (0.7%) N = 590 7 (1.2%) N = 599 0.3769