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Table 2 Etiologies of AKI

From: Practical approach to detection and management of acute kidney injury in critically ill patient

Prerenal AKI
 • Dehydration (vomiting, diarrhea)
 • Bleeding or hypovolemia
 • Heart failure
 • Liver failure
 • Narrowing of renal arteries
 • Renal microangiopathy
 • Exposure to vasoactive drugs
Renal AKI
 • Acute tubular injury/toxicity
  • Drugs (common in ICU)
  • Aminoglycosides, vancomycin
  • Amphotericin B, pentamidine
  • Contrast dyes
  • Bisphosphonates
  • Cisplatin, ifosfamide, methotrexate (crystal nephropathy)
  • Tumor lysis syndrome
  • Multiple myeloma
  • Rhabdomyolysis (crush injury, cocaine, heroin, ketamine, methadone, and methamphetamine)
  • Tissue hypoperfusion, sepsis
 • Acute interstitial nephritis
   • Vancomycin, quinolones, rifampin, sulfonamides, β-lactams (penicillin, cephalosporins), acyclovir (crystal nephropathy)
   • NSAIDs
   • Ifosfamide, carboplatin, Adriamycin, tyrosine kinase inhibitor
Post-renal AKI reflects the obstruction of the urinary system, particularly the ureters.