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Table 1 Baseline characteristic in all patients, and in relation to AKI recurrence risk

From: Association between recurrence of acute kidney injury and mortality in intensive care unit patients with severe sepsis

  All patients No AKI Patients with in-ICU AKI  
   AKI = 1 AKI ≥2 (recurrent)
N = 405 N = 69 N = 252 N = 79 p value
Age (years), median [IQR] 68.21 [56.52–77.70] 55.84 [49.02–69.52] 69.28 [58.07–78.23] 74.29 [64.72–79.16] 0.027
Gender (male) 68.9% 56.5% 71.0% 72.2% 0.848
Hypertension 47.7% 27.5% 50.8% 58.2% 0.248
Diabetes mellitus 18.3% 4.3% 22.6% 17.9% 0.380
COPD 14.8% 13.0% 14.3% 19.0% 0.313
CHF 6.4% 4.3% 7.1% 6.3% 0.804
Cancer 13.6% 10.1% 13.9% 15.2% 0.773
Immunosuppressive state 17.8% 11.6% 19.4% 17.7% 0.734
Source of infection     0.122
 Intra-abdominal 30.9% 29.0% 31.0% 32.9%  
 Lung 37.3% 52.2% 33.3% 35.4%  
 Endocarditis 0.5% 0.0% 0.0% 1.3%  
 Line related 1.5% 1.4% 2.0% 0.0%  
 Urinary tract 12.3% 8.7% 15.5% 6.3%  
 Skin and soft infection 2.0% 0.0% 2.0% 3.8%  
 Unknown/others 15.6% 8.7% 16.3%% 20.3%  
Leukocytes, median [IQR] 13.60 [6.90–21.00] 12.6 [5.15–23.55] 13.60 [7.00–20.45] 15.50 [7.35–21.58] 0.441
Lactate (mg/dl), median [IQR] 23.0 [15.0–37.3] [–] 26.0 [16.0–41.0] 26.0 [17.0–47.0] 0.437
Vasopresors 84.3% 83.8% 85.6% 79.7% 0.214
Septic shock 85.4% 85.5% 86.4% 82.3% 0.366
APACHE, median [IQR] 20 [16–25] 16 [12–19] 20 [16–27] 23 [19–27] 0.032
SOFA, median [IQR] 8 [6–10] 7 [5–8] 9 [7–11] 9 [6–11] 0.952
Mechanical ventilation 51.1% 54.4% 49.4% 51.9% 0.699
C-reactive protein (mg/l), median [IQR] 19.4 [10.30–27.50] 18.6 [7.85–25.45] 20.4 [10.7–29.20] 18.3 [11.05–27.55] 0.673
Procalcitonin (ng/l), median [IQR] 10.24 [2.54–30.37] 4.11 [1.25–10.91] 13.11 [3.31–34.00] 13.29 [2.32–41.90] 0.749
Baseline creatinine (mg/dl), median [IQR] 0.97 [0.80–1.13] 0.88 [0.72–1.00] 0.95 [0.80–1.15] 1.05 [0.90–1.20] 0.022
Baseline estimated GFR (ml/min/1.73 m2), median [IQR] 72.50 [58.36–87.86] 81.91 [64.79–102.55] 72.74 [57.23–86.47] 66.18 [53.84–77.55] 0.030
ICU stay (days), median [IQR] 4.99 [2.99–11.47] 4.99 [1.99–8.48] 3.98 [2.99–10.97] 9.97 [4.99–17.95] <0.001
Hospital stay (days), median [IQR] 16.95 [10.22–30.92] 15.96 [10.97–32.41] 15.96 [9.97–28.92] 19.94 [13.96–34.90] 0.003
KDIGO AKI stages     0.054
 1, n (%) 100 (24.7%) 79 (31.3%) 21 (26.6%)  
 2, n (%) 121 (29.9%) 98 (38.9%) 23 (29.1%)  
 3, n (%) 110 (27.2) 75 (29.8%) 35 (44.3%)  
Maximal creatinine (mg/dl), median [IQR] 2.10 [1.40–3.16] 1.00 [0.84–1.10] 2.30 [1.70–3.19] 2.99 [2.10–4.00] <0.001
Intra-hospital mortality, n (%) 104 (25.7%) 7 (10.1%) 60 (23.8%) 35 (44.3%) <0.001
90-day mortality, n (%) 112 (27.7%) 8 (11.6%) 64 (25.4%) 38 (48.1%) <0.001
End of follow-up mortality, n (%) 190 (46.9%) 22 (31.9%) 113 (44.8%) 53 (67.1%) 0.001