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Table 1 Exercises for orientation

From: Acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase in cardiosurgical patients with postoperative delirium




Acoustic/visual stimulation

Time of year, date, time of day, weather, place, reason for stay, day of surgery/duration of stay

News of the day (newspaper article with picture)

Summary with pictures of temporal and local orientation

Olfactory stimulation




Summary with plants suitable to the smelling and view at the items of tactile stimulation

Tactile stimulation


Cotton pad


  1. Annotation: acoustic stimulation contained questions for the time of year, the date and time of day as well as the weather, place, reason, and duration of stay. Patients were corrected in case of false answer or supported in case of correct answers. The information was summarized by the investigator and was enhanced with suitable pictures. Afterwards patients got to read out a newspaper article. In the olfactory stimulation, patients got to smell three different smellings (lemon, peppermint, and orange).
  2. The answers were corrected or supported and summarized with special pictures. The tactile stimulation in the end included a screw, cotton pad, and a sandpaper. The answers were corrected or supported, and patients could have a look at the items they felt before