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Table 2 ICH vs. non-ICH cohorts: demographics, pre-admission morbidity, pre-cannulation SOFA score, ECMO mode, and indication

From: Predictors of intracranial hemorrhage in adult patients on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation: an observational cohort study

VariableICH cohort (n = 54)Non-ICH cohort (n = 199)p value
Demographics
 Age (years)51.5 (40–61)50 (32–60)0.158
 Male sex35 (65%)127 (64%)1.000
Pre-admission morbidity
 Hypertension9 (17%)36 (18%)0.967
 Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus5 (9%)22 (11%)0.896
 Chronic renal disease2 (4%)1 (1%)0.116
 Antithrombotic therapy7 (13%)7 (4%)0.018
 Charlson comorbidity index0 (0–1)0 (0–1)0.373
Pre-cannulation SOFA score
 Total14 (10.8–16) (26 missing, 48%)13 (10–15) (106 missing, 53%)0.443
 Respiration4 (4–4) (25 missing, 46%)4 (4–4) (95 missing, 48%)0.340
 Coagulation2 (0–3) (26 missing, 48%)1 (0–2) (100 missing, 50%)0.015
 Liver1 (0–2) (26 missing, 48%)1 (0–2) (102 missing, 51%)0.960
 Cardiovascular4 (3–4) (25 missing, 46%)4 (3–4) (95 missing, 48%)0.742
 Neurological1 (0–2) (25 missing, 46%)1 (0–2) (98 missing, 49%)0.726
 Renal1.5 (1–4) (26 missing, 48%)1 (0–4) (101 missing, 51%)0.606
ECMO Indication
 Pulmonary48 (89%)176 (88%) 
 Cardiac2 (4%)17 (9%) 
 ECPR4 (7%)6 (3%) 
ECMO mode
 Venovenous31 (57%)130 (65%)0.361
 Venoarterial23 (43%)69 (35%)0.361
  1. Values are expressed as median (interquartile range) or numbers (proportion)
  2. Italicized text in the p value column indicates a statistically significant correlation (p < 0.05)
  3. Pulmonary indications included pneumonia (n = 102), sepsis (n = 78), respiratory failure (n = 18), ARDS (n = 17), trauma (n = 6), and drowning (n = 3). Cardiac indications included cardiogenic shock (n = 18) and pulmonary embolism (n = 1)
  4. Abbreviations: SOFA Sepsis-related Organ Failure Assessment (also known as Severity Organ Failure Assessment), ECMO extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, ICH intracranial hemorrhage, ECPR extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation