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Table 1 Perfusion indices: evidence and disadvantages

From: Perfusion indices revisited

Measure Evidence Disadvantages
Lactate Meta-analysis Needs blood sampling
Laboratory time
Could be elevated in other conditions than shock
ScvO2 RCT Needs central catheter
Less useful under anesthesia
P (v-a) CO2 Cohort Needs central catheter
Needs blood sampling
Laboratory time
Temperature gradients Cohort T c-toe is affected by hypothermia and room temperature
LV strain Cohort Needs expert operator
Skin mottling Cohort Limited value in burns, amputations, and in dark skin
Capillary refill time Cohort Index CRT: inter-rater variability
Knee CRT: limited value in dark skin
PPI Cohort Needs an expensive device and electrodes
StO2 Cohort Needs NRIS and electrodes
Less accurate in septic shock
Less accurate in early shock stages
Ptco2 Cohort Needs special monitor and electrodes
No definitive cutoff value
OCT RCT Needs special monitor and electrodes
Restricted to intubated patients
Sublingual microcirculation Cohort Needs special device
  1. CRT capillary refill time, LV left ventricular, NRIS near-infrared spectroscopy, OCT oxygen challenge test, Ptco 2 subcutaneous partial oxygen pressure, PPI peripheral perfusion index, P (v-a) CO 2 central-venous-arterial oxygen gradient, RCT randomized controlled trial, ScvO 2 central venous oxygen saturation, StO 2 tissue oxygen saturation, T c-toe central-to-toe temperature gradient, T skin-diff temperature gradient between fingertip and forearm