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Table 1 The impact of the intensivist on patient outcome and cost in the adult intensive care unit

From: The impact of changes in intensive care organization on patient outcome and cost-effectiveness—a narrative review

Reference Country Design Population Year Reduction in ICU LOS Reduction in hospital LOS Reduction in hospital mortality Reduction in cost
Multz [1] USA Prospective Medical 1998 Yes, <0.0001 Yes, <0.01 No n/a
Dimick [2] USA Retrospective Surgical 1994–1998 n/a Yes, <0.05a Yes, <0.001 Yes, 61%
Carson [3] USA Prospective Medical 1996 No No No n/a
Li [4] USA Retrospective Mixed 1984 No n/a Yes, 0.01a n/a
Reynolds [5] USA Retrospective Medical 1986–1988 No No Yes, <0.01a n/a
Brown [6] Canada Retrospective Mixed 1984–1986 n/a n/a Yes, <0.01a n/a
Manthous [7] USA Retrospective Medical 1992–1994 Yes, <0.05 Yes, <0.05 Yes, 0.002a n/a
Pronovost [8] USA Retrospective Surgical 1994–1996 Yes, <0.05a Yes, <0.05a Yes, 0.05a n/a
Baldock [9] UK Prospective Mixed 1995–1998 n/a n/a Yes, 0.001 n/a
Rosenfeld [10] USA Prospective Surgical 1996–1997 Yes, <0.01 No Yes, 0.008a Yes, 36%
Diringer [11] USA Retrospective Neuro 1996–1999 Yes, <0.05 Yes, <0.05 Yes, 0.001 n/a
Blunt [12] UK Retrospective Medical 2000 No No Yes, 0.001a n/a
Hanson [13] USA Retrospective Surgical 1994–1995 Yes, <0.05 Yes, <0.05 No Yes, not quantified
Ghorra [14] USA Retrospective Surgical 1996 No n/a n/a n/a
Tai [15] Singapore Prospective Medical 1993–1994 Yes, 0.01 No n/a n/a
  1. ICU intensive care unit, LOS length of stay, USA United States of America, n/a not applicable
  2. aRemains significant after adjustment for baseline disease severity