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Table 2 Characteristics of the included studies

From: Tranexamic acid and trauma-induced coagulopathy

Authors Year Entry criteria of trauma patients No. of patients Mean ISS Rate of VTE
Total TXA No TXA TXA No TXA p value TXA (%) No TXA (%) p value
RCTs
 Shakur et al. [14] 2010 Adult trauma patients with, or at risk of, significant bleeding 20,127 10,060 10,067 N.A. N.A. N.A. 1.7a 2.0a 0.084
 Yutthakasemsun et al. [42] 2013 Adult trauma patients with moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (post-resuscitation Glasgow Coma Scale 4 to 12) 238 120 118 N.A. N.A. N.A. 0 0
Observational studies
 Morrison et al. [38] 2012 Patients who received at least 1 unit of PRBCs within 24 h of admission following combat-related injury 896 293 603 25.2 22.5 <0.001 2.7 0.3 0.001
 Swendsen et al. [41] 2013 Adult trauma patients who met triage criteria for serious injury and at least one of the following: hypotension, massive transfusion guideline activation, or transport directly to the operating room or interventional radiology suite 126 52 74 27.1 20.5 0.02 11.5 0 0.004
 Haren et al. [43] 2014 Adult trauma patients with hypercoagulable state defined as Greenfield’s risk assessment profile (RAP) ≥10 121 27 94 31 26 0.117 33 27 0.492
 Harvin et al. [44] 2014 Adult trauma patients with hyperfibrinolysis determined by rapid thrombelastography 1032 98 934 29 14 <0.001 6.3 4.4 0.389
 Cole et al. [19] 2015 Adult trauma patients with severe injury defined as injury severity score (ISS) >15 385 160 225 33 29 <0.05 5 4 ns
 Wafaisade et al. [45] 2016 Trauma patients with/without prehospital TXA administration 516 258 258 24 24 0.46 5.6 8.3 0.58
  1. ISS injury severity score, VTE venous thromboembolism, RCTs randomized controlled trials, TXA tranexaminc acid, N.A. not available, ns not significant
  2. aThese data indicate the rate of pulmonary embolisms