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Table 1 Study design and baseline characteristics

From: Nicotine replacement therapy for agitation and delirium management in the intensive care unit: a systematic review of the literature

First author, year (ref no.) ICU type Design, sample size Mean age (years) Gender
Male %
APACHE IIa Mechanical ventilation % Excessive alcohol intake Smoking history Source of smoking history
Mayer, 2001 [13] Neurological ICU Case series
n = 5
52.6 60 “Heavy” tobacco use Surrogate n = 1
Not stated n = 4
Honisett, 2001 [14] Surgical ICU Case report
n = 1
41 100 100 “Heavy” drinker “Heavy” smoker Not stated
Seder, 2010 [15] Neurological ICU Retrospective cohort
NRT = 128
No NRT = 106
NRT = 50
No NRT = 50
NRT = 34
No NRT = 33
NRT = 11.4 ± 7.4
No NRT = 10.7 ± 7.8
NRT = 30%
No NRT = 16%
>10 cigarettes/day
NRT = 73%
No NRT = 47%
Pack year historya
NRT = 34 ± 29
No NRT = 31 ± 34
Patient/surrogate reporting
Cartin-Ceba, 2011 [16] Medical ICU Prospective cohort
NRT = 174
No NRT = 156
NRT = 53.8
No NRT = 54.6
NRT = 60.3
No NRT = 53.2
APACHE III
NRT = 50 (35–65.5)
No NRT = 49 (38–62)
NRT = 69
No NRT = 44
Cigarettes/dayb
NRT = 20 (10–30)
No NRT = 15 (10–20)
Pack year historyb
NRT = 30 (18–50)
No NRT = 23 (10–45)
Patient/surrogate reporting
Tobacco assessment protocol
Gillies, 2012 [18] Mixed medical/surgical ICU Retrospective cohort
NRT = 73
No NRT = 350
NRT = 55.5
No NRT = 56.3
NRT = 64.9
No NRT = 67.4
NRT = 21.8 ± 15.5
No NRT = 27.2 ± 20.1
NRT = 50%
No NRT = 21.7%
p < 0.001
Not reported Electronic medical records
Pathak, 2013 [17] Mixed medical/surgical ICU RCT double-blind pilot study
NRT = 20
No NRT = 20
NRT = 57.4
No NRT = 52.3
67.5 NRT = 14.3 ± 9.7
No NRT = 13.8 ± 9.4
NRT = 50
No NRT = 50
Packs/daya
NRT = 1.2 ± 0.5
No NRT = 1.0 ± 0.4
Years of smokinga
NRT = 24.4 ± 10.2
No NRT = 23.3 ± 10.7
Self report
At time of written consent
  1. aMean ± standard deviation
  2. bMedian (interquartile range)