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Table 3 Causes of loss of lung sliding

From: Lung ultrasound—a primary survey of the acutely dyspneic patient

Pleural separation Pleural adhesions Non-ventilation
 Pneumothorax  Pleural effusion  Pleural diseases Artifact mimics  Subcutaneous emphysema  Tissue planes Inflammatory adhesions • Pneumonia • Acute lung injury Pleurodesis Pleural fibrosis • Interstitial lung disease • Fibrotic lung disease Pleural diseases Apnea Severe hyperinflation • Asthma • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) Non-ventilated patient • cEndotracheal tube complications • One-lung intubation Atelectasis