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Table 3 Summary of current major protocols of point-of-care ultrasound for undifferentiated shock/cardiac arrest

From: Make it SIMPLE: enhanced shock management by focused cardiac ultrasound

Protocols Year of publication Cardiac views IVC size Abdominal aorta Lung scan Remarks
UHP [11] 2001 SXP+/−PLX, PSX No Yes No Simplified version of extended FAST
Trinity [64] 2002 PLX, PSX No Yes Pleural effusion only Similar to extended FAST
FATE [65] 2004 PLX, PSX, AP4, SXP No No Pleural effusion only Chronic pathologies included
BLEEP [66] 2004 SXP, PSX Yes No No Pediatric patients only
CAUSE [67] 2007 4 views Yes Yes Yes Cardiac arrest
FEER [68] 2007 SXP, PLX, PSX, AP4 No No No Integrated into ACLS protocol for cardiac arrest
BEAT [69] 2008 PLX, PSX, AP4, SXP Yes No No Surgical patients; SV and CI included
ACES [10] 2008 SXP, PLX, AP4 Yes Yes Pleural effusion only  
RUSH-HIMAP [70] 2009 PLX, AP4 Yes Yes Yes  
RUSH-pump, pipe, tank [9] 2010 PLX, PSX, SXP, AP4 Yes Yes Yes Physiological model of pump, pipe, tank
FEEL [71] 2010 SXP, PLX. AP4 (any one of them) No No Pleural effusion only Cardiac arrest and peri-arrest state
EGLS [72] 2011 PLX, PSX, AP4, SXP Yes No Yes Lung scan first approach
FREE [73] 2011 PLX, PSX, AP4, SXP Yes No No Trauma patients
FALLS [74] 2012 Not specifically mentioned No No Yes Mainly lung scan
FAST and RELIABLE [75] 2012 PLX, PSX, AP4, SXP Yes Yes Yes Ectopic pregnancy included
Volpicelli et al. [76] 2013 PLS, SXP, AP4 Yes Yes Yes Similar to RUSH [9]
Shokoohi et al. [77] 2015 SXP, PLX, PSX, AP4 Yes Yes Yes FAST included
SIMPLE 2016 PLX, PSX, AP4, AP2, SXP Yes Yes No Easy-to-remember checklist of sonographic findings; intracardiac mass and intimal flap included; can be combined with FAST
  1. PSX parasternal short axis view, PLX parasternal long axis view, SXP subxyphoid view, AP4 apical four-chamber view, AP2 apical two-chamber view, IVC inferior vena cava, ACLS advanced cardiac life support, ICU intensive care unit, FAST focused assessment with sonography for trauma, SV stroke volume, CI cardiac index