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Table 1 Baseline clinical characteristics of survivors and non-survivors in the post-resuscitation phase of septic shock

From: Right heart in septic shock: prospective observational study

Variables Septic shock Survivors Non-survivors P value
(N = 88) (n = 36) (n = 52)
Age, years 38 ± 15 34 ± 13 41 ± 16 0.00*
Gender, female, n (%) 36 (41) 14 (39) 22 (42) 0.83
Type of illness, n (%)
 Medical 80 (91) 35 (44) 45 (56) 0.75
 Surgical 8 (9) 1 (12) 7 (88) 0.15
Nature of illness, n (%)
 Lung disease 46 (52) 14 (39) 32 (61) 0.05
 Renal disease 36 (41) 12 (33) 24 (46) 0.27
Comorbid illness, n (%) 34 (39) 14 (41) 20 (59) 1.0
 Diabetes mellitus 20 (23) 8 (40) 12 (60) 1.0
 Hypertension 10 (11) 4 (40) 6 (60) 1.0
Severity scores
 APACHE-II 16.5 ± 7.1 14.6 ± 7.0 17.9 ± 6.9 0.02*
 SOFA 10.2 ± 4.5 10.1 ± 4.2 10.3 ± 4.7 0.02*
Laboratory
 Hemoglobin, g/dl 10.2 ± 6.5 9.1 ± 2.2 10.9 ± 8.2 0.19
 TLC, ×103/μL 17.9 ± 9.5 19 ± 12.1 17.2 ± 7.2 0.06
 Platelet, ×103/μL 143 ± 132 160 ± 148 130 ± 97 0.13
 Serum creatinine, mg/dl 5.5 ± 2.8 2.4 ± 2.5 7.6 ± 2.6 0.17
 Blood urea nitrogen, mg/dl 54.8 ± 42.2 45.1 ± 28.3 61.3 ± 48.4 0.02*
 Total bilirubin, mg/dl 4.0 ± 3.5 2.7 ± 1.4 5.3 ± 3.6 0.00*
 ALT, U/L 142 ± 130 167 ± 102 124 ± 111 0.37
 AST, U/L 160 ± 130 185.4 ± 106.8 141.9 ± 103.5 0.23
 ALP, U/L 274 ± 100 353.6 ± 182.1 215.4 ± 136.4 0.47
 Albumin, g/dl 2.9 ± 0.7 3.1 ± 0.9 2.7 ± 0.4 0.00*
Hemodynamics
 Heart rate, bpm 103 ± 20 100 ± 19 105 ± 22 0.07
 MAP, mmHg 87 ± 9 89 ± 11 85 ± 8 <0.001**
 CVP, mmHg 8 ± 4 8 ± 3 9 ± 4 0.00*
 Central venous O2 saturation, % 73 ± 7 73 ± 6 73 ± 8 0.82
 Lactate, mg/dl 18 ± 11 15.9 ± 9 18.9 ± 12.8 0.01*
Acid-base
 pH 7.36 ± 0.08 7.38 ± 0.05 7.35 ± 0.10 <0.001**
 Base excess 2.4 ± 2.3 1.5 ± 1.3 3.2 ± 2.7 0.00*
 Base deficit 4.1 ± 3.4 4.5 ± 3.5 3.9 ± 3.4 0.64
 PaO2, mmHg 103 ± 26 104 ± 26 103 ± 26 0.02*
 PaCO2, mmHg 42 ± 13 39 ± 7 44 ± 16 0.00*
 cHCO3 23.6 ± 5 23 ± 4.1 24 ± 5.6 0.35
 Na+, mEq/L 140 ± 8.8 139 ± 10 140 ± 7.8 0.25
 K+, mEq/L 4.9 ± 1.6 5.5 ± 0.4 4.4 ± 0.5 0.36
 Cl, mEq/L 101 ± 6.4 100 ± 6.9 102 ± 6.1 0.57
Mechanical ventilation
 Invasive ventilation, n (%) 76 (88) 30 (43) 46 (57) 0.54
 PaO2/FiO2 ratio 251 ± 95 254 ± 70 248 ± 109 <0.001**
 Pressure support, cmH2O 17 ± 5 17 ± 3 17 ± 6 0.04*
 PEEP, cmH2O 8 ± 3 9 ± 2 8 ± 3 0.45
 Tidal volume, ml 420 ± 91 459 ± 63 395 ± 97 0.02*
Fluid balance
 Last 24 h, ml 1163 ± 940 1418 ± 1028 1009 ± 868 0.60
 Positive balance, n (%) 60 (68) 20 (33) 40 (67) 0.19
 Negative balance, n (%) 20 (23) 10 (50) 10 (50)  
Urine output
 Previous 24 h, ml 1461 ± 1058 1658 ± 987 1325 ± 1094 0.16
 Unaided, n (%) 50 (57) 22 (44) 28 (56) 0.58
 Lasix aided, n (%) 14 (16) 4 (29) 10 (71)  
 Dialysis, n (%) 14 (16) 6 (43) 8 (57)  
Hemodynamic support
 Vasopressors, n (%) 88 (100) 36 (44) 52 (56) 0.16
 Vasopressin, n (%) 28 (32) 6 (21) 22 (79) 0.02*
 NADR dose, μg/kg/min 0.2 ± 0.1 0.10 ± 0.12 0.26 ± 0.26 <0.001**
 NADR ≥0.1 μg/kg/min 44 (50) 8 (18) 36 (82) <0.001**
 Dobutamine, n (%) 6 (7) 4 (67) 2 (33) 0.22
Event free, days
 Ventilation 9 ± 8.5 15.7 ± 15 3.9 ± 6.3 <0.001**
 Vasopressor 16.4 ± 15.6 31.4 ± 30.1 5.2 ± 3.7 <0.001**
 RRT 21.1 ± 17 32.5 ± 30.5 12.6 ± 11.2 0.06
Length of ICU stay, days 21 ± 21 33.4 ± 30.9 12.1 ± 9.3 0.04*
  1. All measurements are in mean ± SD, unless specified
  2. Abbreviations: APACHE-II acute physiology and chronic health evaluation, SOFA sequential organ failure assessment, ALT alanine transaminase, AST aspartate aminotransferase, ALP alkaline phosphatase, MAP mean arterial pressure, CVP central venous pressure, PaO 2 partial pressure of oxygen, K + potassium, Cl chloride, PEEP positive end-expiratory pressure, NADR noradrenaline, RRT renal replacement therapy, ICU intensive care unit
  3. *Significant, p < 0.05; **highly significant, p < 0.001