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Table 1 Demographic, clinical characteristics, baseline nutritional status, and biochemistries in the two groups

From: Change of serum prealbumin levels and serum protein markers between egg white powder and casein protein additives in standard enteral feeding formulas in critically ill patients with acute respiratory failure

Characteristics Casein group (n = 17) Egg white powder group (n = 17) p value
Male sex 52.9 % (9/17) 47.1 % (8/17) 0.73
Age (year) 73.2 ± 3.7 70.3 ± 3.8 0.59
Primary diagnosis (%)    0.31
 Respiratory causes 76.5 % (13/17) 58.8 % (10/17)  
 Cardiovascular causes 17.7 % (3/17) 11.8 % (2/17)  
 Neurological causes 5.9 % (1/17) 17.7 % (3/17)  
 Sepsis/septic shock 0 11.8 % (2/17)  
Presence of ARDS (%) 5.9 % (1/17) 0 % (0/17) 0.30
APACHE II score 17.9 ± 1.0 18.6 ± 1.1 0.67
Norepinephrine dose (μg/kg/min) 0.008 ± 0.006 0.024 ± 0.011 0.21
Height (cm) 159.4 ± 2.3 155.9 ± 2.4 0.31
Ideal body weight (kg) 54.2 ± 2.5 50.8 ± 2.7 0.36
BMI (kg/m2) 21.3 ± 0.76 21.8 ± 0.9 0.70
Estimated energy requirement (kcal/day) 1626.4 ± 73.7 1523.7 ± 81.9 0.36
Estimated protein requirement (g/day) 81.3 ± 3.7 76.2 ± 4.1 0.36
Average accumulative fluid balance (mL) 4406.9 ± 546.6 6296.1 ± 1420.9 0.20
Average caloric intake (kcal/day) 1402.3 ± 34.7 1453.1 ± 24.3 0.25
Average protein intake (g/day) 89.3 ± 2.6 93.6 ± 1.4 0.17
Average percentage of caloric intake/caloric goal (%) 93.5 ± 2.3 96.9 ± 1.6 0.26
Average gram protein intake (g/kg/day) 1.7 ± 0.1 1.9 ± 0.1 0.19
CRP (mg%) 7.2 ± 1.4 7.3 ± 1.3 0.96
Albumin (g%) 2.7 ± 0.2 2.9 ± 0.1 0.48
Prealbumin (mg%) 13.7 ± 1.7 11.1 ± 1.5 0.25
BUN (mg%) 33.6 ± 5.3 33.8 ± 5.5 0.98
Creatinine (mg%) 1.3 ± 0.2 1.2 ± 0.2 0.91
Total bilirubin (mg%) 0.4 ± 0.1 0.7 ± 0.2 0.12
AST (U/L) 41.3 ± 4.2 65.2 ± 10.8 0.06
ALT (U/L) 34.3 ± 8.9 59.7 ± 19.5 0.27
Zinc level (mg/L) 0.5 ± 0.1 0.5 ± 0.1 0.21
  1. All continuous data are expressed as mean ± SEM. All categorical data are expressed as percentage.
  2. ARDS acute respiratory distress syndrome, APACHE II acute physiology and chronic health evaluation, BMI body mass index, BUN blood urea nitrogen, AST aspartate aminotransferase, ALT alanine aminotransferase