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Table 1 Patient characteristics

From: Risk factors for late defecation and its association with the outcomes of critically ill patients: a retrospective observational study

  Early defecation group Late defecation group P value
(n = 186) (n = 96)
Age, years 68 (59–78) 70 (54–80) 0.96
Male, n (%) 107 (58) 51 (53) 0.48
BMI, kg/m2 21 (19–24) 22 (20–24) 0.34
Physiological and laboratory findings on admission
 Body temperature, °C 36.5 (36.0–37.2) 36.5 (35.8–36.9) 0.22
 WBC count, ×1000/μL 11 (8–16) 11 (8–15) 0.87
 Serum CRP, mg/dL 0.7 (0.1–6.0) 0.2 (0.1–0.7) 0.003
 APACHE II score 13 (9–21) 16 (9–21) 0.67
 SOFA score 4 (2–6) 4 (2–5) 0.14
Diagnosis on admission, n (%)      0.079
 Cardiovascular disease 37 (20) 21 (22)  
 Neurological disorder or stroke 60 (32) 46 (48)  
 Infection 27 (15) 6 (6)  
 External causes (e.g., trauma, intoxication, burn) 33 (18) 13 (14)  
 Post cardiac arrest 11 (6) 4 (4)  
 Others 18 (10) 6 (6)  
Time (days) from admission to the:
 First defecation 3 (2–4) 7 (6–8) <0.001
 First intervention to promote elimination 3 (2–4) 6 (4–7) <0.001
 Initiation of enteral nutrition 2 (2–3) 3 (3–5) <0.001
Mechanical ventilation, n (%) 75 (40) 59 (61) 0.001
Sedative use, n (%) 73 (39) 71 (74) <0.001
Fentanyl use, n (%) 24 (13) 28 (29) 0.001
Vasopressor use, n (%) 49 (26) 26 (27) 0.89
Surgery, n (%) 34 (18) 41 (43) <0.001
Type of surgery, n (%)      0.26
 Neurological 25 (74) 35 (85)  
 Cardiovascular 1 (3) 2 (5)  
 Orthopedic 5 (15) 1 (2)  
 Debridement of skin and subcutaneous tissue 3 (9) 2 (5)  
 Others 0 (0) 1 (2)  
  1. All data are presented as the median (interquartile range) or n (%)
  2. BMI body mass index, WBC white blood cell, CRP C-reactive protein, APACHE II Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (second revision), SOFA Sequential Organ Failure Assessment