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Table 2 Cooling techniques

From: Targeted temperature management for adult out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: current concepts and clinical applications

  Rapid infusion of ice-cold IV fluid and ice packs Water-circulating blankets Air-circulating blankets Water-circulating gel-coated pads Intravascular cooling devices
Induction phase      
 Simpleness      
  Pre-hospital × × × ×
  After hospital arrival ×
Specialized devices Specialized devices Specialized devices Specialized devices intravascular catheterization
 Non-invasiveness ×
intravascular catheterization
 Cooling rate × ×
0.32 ± 0.24 °C/h 1.33 ± 0.63 °C/h 0.18 ± 0.20 °C/h 1.04 ± 0.14 °C/h 1.46 ± 0.42 °C/h
Maintenance phase      
 Stabilitya × × × ×
69.8 ± 37.6 % 50.5 ± 35.9 % 74.1 ± 40.5 % 44.2 ± 33.7 % 3.2 ± 4.8 %
 Convenience ×
Frequent manual exchange Manual control Manual control Automated control Automated control
 Inexpensiveness × ×
Specialized devices Specialized devices Specialized devices Specialized devices
  1. aThe percentage of time the patient’s temperature was out of range more than 0.2 °C below or above the target temperature
  2. Reference: [49] Hoedemaekers CW, Ezzahti M, Gerritsen A, van der Hoeven JG. Comparison of cooling methods to induce and maintain normo- and hypothermia in intensive care unit patients: a prospective intervention study. Crit Care 2007; 11: R91