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Table 1 Type and pathophysiology of traumatic brain injury

From: Targeted temperature management in traumatic brain injury

  Diffuse brain injury Focal brain injury
Primary brain injury • Diffuse axonal injury
• Petechial white matter hemorrhage with diffuse vascular injury
• Focal cortical contusion
• Intracerebral hemorrhage
• Extracerebral hemorrhage (i.e., ASDH, AEDH)
Secondary brain injury • Delayed neuronal injury
• Diffuse brain swelling
• Diffuse ischemic injury
• Diffuse hypoxic injury
• Diffuse metabolic dysfunction
• Delayed neuronal injury
• Focal brain swelling
• Focal ischemic injury
• Focal hypoxic injury
• Regional metabolic dysfunction
  1. ASDH acute subdural hematoma, AEDH acute epidural hematoma