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Table 2 Sociodemographic profile and selected clinical variables of participants according to the presence or absence of significant arrhythmia and presence of premature complexes

From: Risk factors and clinical outcomes of arrhythmias in the medical intensive care unit

  All (n = 215) No arrhythmia (n = 109) Arrhythmiaa (n = 62) Premature complexesb (n = 44) p value
Sociodemographic characteristics
Age, median (IQR) 62 (48–77) 51 (39–64)c,d 66 (55–81)c 72 (64–82)d <0.001
Male gender, n (%) 128 (59.5) 62 (56.9) 37 (59.7) 29 (65.9) 0.588
Race/ethnicity (n = 198), n (%)      
Hispanic white 133 (67.2) 62 (62.6) 39 (67.2) 32 (78.1) 0.265
Hispanic black 61 (30.8) 34 (34.3) 19 (32.8) 8 (19.5)  
Other 4 (2.0) 3 (3.0) 0 (0) 1 (2.4)  
Civil status (n = 201), n (%)      
Single/divorced 91 (45.3) 46 (46.9) 29 (49.2) 16 (36.4) 0.083
Married 79 (39.3) 43 (43.9) 17 (28.8) 19 (43.2)  
Widowed 31 (15.4) 9 (9.2) 13 (22.0) 9 (20.5)  
Education (n = 139), n (%)      
<High school 78 (56.1) 41 (55.4) 20 (60.6) 17 (53.1) 0.818
High school graduate or more 61 (43.9) 33 (44.6) 13 (39.4) 15 (46.9)  
Employment (n = 181), n (%)      
Employed 42 (23.2) 24 (25.3) 11 (24.4) 7 (17.1) 0.047
Unemployed 80 (44.2) 48 (50.5) 19 (42.2) 13 (31.7)  
Retired/disabled 59 (32.6) 23 (24.2)c 15 (33.3) 21 (51.2)c  
Medical insurance, n (%)      
Medicaid 135 (62.8) 80 (73.4)c,d 34 (54.8)c 21 (47.7)d 0.013
Medicare 46 (21.4) 14 (12.8)c 15 (24.2) 17 (38.6)c  
Private 19 (8.8) 8 (7.3) 7 (11.3) 4 (9.1)  
Uninsured 15 (7.0) 7 (6.4) 6 (9.7) 2 (4.6)  
Risky behaviors
Tobacco smokers (n = 202), n (%) 78 (38.6) 36 (36.4) 25 (41.7) 17 (39.5) 0.793
Illicit drug users (n = 204), n (%) 38 (18.6) 24 (23.8) 9 (14.8) 5 (11.9) 0.164
Alcohol drinkers (n = 201), n (%) 47 (23.4) 19 (19.4) 12 (19.7) 16 (38.1) 0.040
Pre-existing conditions
Hypertension (n = 210), n (%) 134 (63.8) 57 (53.3)c 41 (69.5) 36 (81.8)c 0.002
Diabetes (n = 211), n (%) 96 (45.5) 49 (45.8) 25 (41.7) 22 (50.0) 0.698
CHF (n = 209), n (%) 26 (12.4) 8 (7.6)c 8 (13.3) 10 (22.7)c 0.038
CAD (n = 209), n (%) 67 (32.1) 31 (29.5) 20 (33.3) 16 (36.4) 0.695
Dyslipidemia (n = 210), n (%) 35 (16.7) 14 (13.2) 11 (18.3) 10 (22.7) 0.333
HIV (n = 210), n (%) 11 (5.2) 5 (4.7) 3 (5.0) 3 (6.8) 0.848
CKD (n = 210), n (%) 27 (12.9) 11 (10.4) 8 (13.3) 8 (18.2) 0.426
Asthma/COPD (n = 210), n (%) 37 (17.6) 21 (19.8) 8 (13.3) 8 (18.2) 0.571
Liver disease (n = 212), n (%) 20 (9.4) 12 (11.1) 5 (8.3) 3 (6.8) 0.745
Outcomes
Length of stay in ICU (days)      
Total 1964 968 686 310
Median (IQR) 5 (3–11) 5 (3–8) 7 (4–13) 4 (3–11) 0.089
In-hospital mortality, n (%) 57 (26.5) 21 (19.3)c 29 (46.8) c, d 7 (15.9)d <0.001
  1. p values were computed using Kruskal-Wallis test on continuous variables and chi-square test or Fisher’s exact test on categorical variables. Post hoc evaluations were made using Dunn’s test and z tests with Bonferroni corrections
  2. aPatients who presented supraventricular and/or ventricular arrhythmias
  3. bPatients who presented premature atrial contractions (PACs) and/or premature ventricular complexes (PVCs) but no arrhythmias
  4. c,dDenote which groups have statistically significant differences after post hoc comparisons (p < 0.05)